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To investigate the clinical characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in phlegm specimens of positive patients, so as to provide evidences for the nosocomial infection control.
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To establish a model where the role of bacterial biofilms in chronic pneumonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be investigated, hydrocortisone-treated guinea pigs were given P. aeruginosa, strain 2126 by inhalation which were used throughout this study, in planktonic form. In these animals, the bacteria were recovered only from the lungs more than 4 weeks after infection. The persistence in bacterial colonization in the lungs coincided with the formation of glanulomatous lesions that surrounded spherical grains consisting of outer shell and inner bacterial colonies. The outer shell of grain was stained with ruthenium red and was presumed to be polyanionic and therefore to be a biofilm-like material. In normal animals without hydrocortisone-treatment, the number of neutrophils recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased significantly from 3 hours after infection and subsequently the inhaled bacteria were eliminated from the lungs by day 3 of infection. This early influx of neutrophils into the lungs tended to be suppressed by treatment with hydrocortisone. The formation of grains did not take place in the lungs of normal animals, indicating the significant role of grain-formation in the initiation and the prolongation of bacterial colonization in the lungs. P. aeruginosa, strain 2126, incubated in saline formed thick biofilms on the surface of teflon piece. Levofloxacin (LVFX), a quinolone antibacterial, exhibited killing activity against the bacteria in in vitro-forming biofilms at MIC. In contrast, gentamicin (GM), an aminoglycosid antibiotic, and ceftazidime (CAZ), a beta-lactams antibiotic, showed no such killing activity at MIC. Treatment of this model with oral LVFX achieved complete eradication of the bacteria, whereas subcutaneous injection of GM or CAZ was hardly effective. The pharmacokinetic study on these antibacterials revealed that the doses used in this study were sufficient to obtain the pulmonary levels of these drugs far above MIC even in GM and CAZ. These data indicate that the outer shell of grains, a characteristic finding in the pulmonary lesions of this model, may be one of the forms of pseudomonal biofilms and that this model represents the significant role of biofilm mode of growth of P. aeruginosa in persistence in pulmonary colonization.
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Resistance to methicillin was detected with a cefoxitin disk diffusion assay and confirmed with a MRSA-agar and MRSA detection kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by a disk diffusion assay and interpreted according to the 2012 guidelines of the Antibiogram Committee of the French Society for Microbiology. Decreased susceptibility to glycopeptides was confirmed using the population analysis profile-area under the curve (PAP-AUC) method. The presence of the mecA gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Bacterial DNA was extracted according to the manufacturer's recommended protocol using commercial extraction kits. Strains were extensively characterized using the DNA microarray.
The reported case mortality of SARS is about 9% worldwide. In Singapore, the mortality is 15.5%. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is believed to be a contributory factor to our patient's demise. We report this case to show the radiographic changes of ARDS in a patient with SARS.
There are bacteria infections in most of chronic rhinosinusitis. The fluoroquinolones should be preferred in sinus surgery.
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A flow injection analysis (FIA) using UV detection, potentiometry and conductometry for levofloxacin (LVF) are described in this study. The best solvent system was found to consist of 0.2 M acetate buffer at pH 3 having 10% MeOH. A flow rate of 1 ml min(-1) was pumped and active material was detected at 288 nm. The detection limit (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for FIA were calculated to be 3 x 10(-7) M (S/N = 3) and 1 x 10(-7) M (S/N = 10), respectively. In the analysis of tablets, the RSD values were found to be 0.83, 0.98 and 0.99 for FIA, potentiometric and conductometric methods, respectively.
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis among female outpatients treated for genital infection at a Chinese hospital from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013.
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Subjects included patients within a managed care setting over 18 years of age with an initial diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia from January 1995 to April 2002. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to examine associations with treatment success rates and direct medical costs between antibiotic treatments after controlling for patient demographics and pneumonia risk factors.
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In all, 250 patients receiving intravenous therapy with fluoroquinolones (113 with levofloxacin and 137 with ciprofloxacin) were studied, with 76 and 70 patients, respectively, being eligible for a pharmaceutical intervention program to promote ST. Pharmaceutical intervention showed a decreased duration of intravenous therapy and increased duration of oral therapy for both drugs, as well as decreased medication-related costs, all in a statistically significant manner.