lekoklar 500 mg
beta-Lactamase production and susceptibility to an assortment of antimicrobial agents were examined in 9,483 strains of organisms isolated from clinical materials obtained from inpatients and outpatients at 104 institutions throughout Japan from December 1999 to February 2000. The organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, 1,369 strains, including 847 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains; Enterococcus faecalis, 735 strains; Enterococcus faecium, 302 strains; Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, 730 strains; Haemophilus influenzae, 1,142 strains; Escherichia coli, 1,276 strains; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1,058 strains; Enterobacter cloacae, 772 strains; Serratia marcescens, 847 strains; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1,252 strains. The 23 antimicrobial agents used were ampicillin, sulbactam/ampicillin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin, oxacillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefotiam, cefmetazole, cefoperazone, sulbactam/cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefpodoxime, imipenem, gentamicin, arbekacin, clarithromycin, minocycline, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, teicoplanin, and levofloxacin. Antimicrobial agents appropriate for each organism were used. Among S. aureus strains, 61.9% were MRSA, and 62.3% were positive for beta-lactamase. Among the MRSA strains, none was resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin, and only 3% were resistant to arbekacin. There was no vancomycin resistance in the Enterococcus strains. Only 0.1% of E. faecalis strains were ampicillin-resistant. Among the M. catarrhalis strains, 97.5% produced beta-lactamase, while among the H. influenzae strains, 8.5% produced beta-lactamase and 14.5% were beta-lactamase-negative and ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR). Among the Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa strains, there were 20 (E. coli; 7/1,276, K. pneumoniae; 13/1,058) that produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), and 11 that produced class B beta-lactamases. Multiple drug resistance was advanced in every species, and organisms resistant to 7 or more common antimicrobial agents were isolated. The best combination of antimicrobial agent and beta-lactamase inhibitor was sulbactam/cefoperazone. Sulbactam/cefoperazone, cefepime, and imipenem still have excellent antimicrobial activity. Rates of resistance to each antimicrobial agent differed more among institutions than among geographical regions.
lekoklar xl 500 mg
The aim of the present study was to determine the association between genotypes of the MDR1 gene, encoding P-glycoprotein, and gingival overgrowth in transplant patients treated with cyclosporine, and to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment in these patients.
pret lekoklar 500 mg
The resurgence of tuberculosis and the surge of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have reaffirmed tuberculosis as a primary public health concern. In this review we describe some new findings on the pharmacological status of fluoroquinolones derivatives (Gatifloxacin, Moxifloxacin and Sitafloxacin), new macrolides (Clarithromycin, Azithromycin and Roxithromycin), new rifamycin derivatives (Rifapentin, Rifabutin and Rifalazil) and new oxazolidinones (Linezolid and PNU 100480). We describe also other type of agents that are being developed as antimycobacterial drugs. Some of these are under clinical investigation, while others are considered to be promising candidates for future development. Among them, nitroimidazopyrans, new ketolides, Isoxyl (ISO), pyrroles derived from BM 212, Mefloquine and Diarylquinoline R207910 are discussed. We also describe the mechanism of drug resistance in mycobacteria, as well as new potential targets.
lekoklar xl 500 mg cena
These results suggest that clarithromycin plus high-dose ranitidine is a combination which achieves reasonably high H. pylori eradication rates. However, treatment failure inevitably leads to clarithromycin resistance. The improvement of non-ulcer dyspepsia symptoms during acute therapy is independent of H. pylori eradication. Long-term benefit of H. pylori eradication with respect to the symptoms of functional dyspepsia was not observed.
lekoklar forte 500 mg cena
Abstract Study Objective. To assess the effects of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A genotype, CYP3A5, on atorvastatin pharmacokinetics and its interaction with clarithromycin. Design. Prospective, two-phase, randomized-sequence, open-label pharmacokinetic study. Setting. Clinical research center at a teaching hospital. Subjects. Twenty-three healthy volunteers who were screened for genotype: 10 subjects carried the CYP3A5*1 allele (expressors) and 13 subjects did not (nonexpressors). Intervention. In one phase, subjects received a single oral dose of atorvastatin 20 mg. In the other phase, subjects received clarithromycin 500 mg twice/day for 5 days; on day 4 after the morning dose, subjects also received a single oral dose of atorvastatin 20 mg. All subjects participated in both phases of the study, which were separated by at least 14 days. Measurements and Main Results. Pharmacokinetic parameters of both forms of atorvastatin-atorvastatin acid and atorvastatin lactone-were compared between CYP3A5 expressors and nonexpressors, both in the absence and presence of clarithromycin, a strong CYP3A inhibitor. The acid form is pharmacologically active, and the lactone form has been associated with the atorvastatin's muscle-related adverse effects. Atorvastatin acid exposure did not differ significantly between CYP3A5 genotype groups. When subjects had not received clarithromycin pretreatment, the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) of atorvastatin lactone was 36% higher in nonexpressors than in expressors (median 47.6 ng•hr/ml [interquartile range (IQR) 37.8-64.3 ng•hr/ml] vs 34.9 ng•hr/ml [IQR 21.6-42.2 ng•hr/ml], p=0.038). After clarithromycin pretreatment, changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of atorvastatin acid and lactone were not significantly different between the nonexpressors versus the expressors; however, the increase in the AUC(0-∞) of atorvastatin lactone was 37% greater in expressors than in nonexpressors (geometric mean ± SD 3.59 ± 0.57 vs 2.62 ± 0.35, p=0.049). Conclusion. Our data suggest that the CYP3A5 genotype has minimal effects on the pharmacokinetic parameters of atorvastatin and its interaction with clarithromycin; these effects are unlikely to be clinically significant.
Clarithromycin is a main component of the recommended first-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori in Egypt. We aimed in our study to investigate the prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains due to the point mutations at domain V of the H. pylori 23S rRNA among the Egyptian population using the polymerase chain reaction/restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay.
lekoklar 250 mg comprimate filmate
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most frequent infectious disease conditions. With the aim of knowing the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of CAP in Spanish hospitals we performed a prospective, observational and multicenter study.
lekoklar 500 mg filmtabletta
An 81-year-old woman with no underlying systemic illness was hospitalized with fever, muscle weakness, and sputum without cough for 2 days. Chest imaging showed consolidation in the left lower lobe. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for six respiratory bacteria and 12 respiratory viruses performed on sputum obtained on admission showed Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA, with no evidence of other pathogens. M. pneumoniae was confirmed to be the causative agent by serologic data. Variation of mycoplasma quantity in subsequent sputa was analyzed because of persistent sputum production despite treatment with minocycline. Mycoplasma DNA gradually decreased, becoming undetectable 1 week after the completion of 2 weeks of minocycline therapy. Two weeks after the completion of the minocycline therapy, mycoplasma DNA in sputum was strongly detectable again, and oral treatment with clarithromycin was initiated. No pathogen DNA was detected during 2 weeks of clarithromycin therapy or at 2 weeks after completion of this therapy. Although susceptibility tests on three isolates (on admission, 1 week after starting minocycline, and 2 weeks after minocycline cessation), showed no resistance to minocycline or clarithromycin, the infection was, nonetheless, prolonged. Some elderly subjects with mycoplasma pneumonia may show a longer course than that in young persons with pneumonia.