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Renal clearance was 2.56 +/- 0.42 ml/min in control, which accounted for 34% of the total body clearance. Renal clearance was significantly decreased to 0.83 +/- 0.25 ml/min by cimetidine (p < .05), corresponding to 32% of the control value. The cationic drug, tetraethyl-ammonium also reduced the renal clearance of levofloxacin, but the effect of the anionic drug, p-aminohippurate, was slight. The clearance ratio of levofloxacin, which was calculated by renal clearance divided by the plasma unbound fraction and the glomerular filtration rate, was 1.60 +/- 0.38 in the control and it was decreased to 0.68 +/- 0.17 and 1.11 +/- 0.22 by cimetidine and tetraethylammonium, respectively.
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The use of antibiotic prophylaxis in neutropenic patients remains controversial. The main arguments against prophylaxis are the lack of survival benefit and the risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. At present, clinical guidelines advise against routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis and current practice is to commence broad-spectrum antibiotics at the onset of fever in the neutropenic patient. However hospitalization, investigations and treatment all impact on resources as well as affecting patient quality of life, often resulting in chemotherapy delays and dose reductions. The benefits of prophylactic antibiotics have been emphasized by two major double-blind, placebo controlled trials with levofloxacin with very significant reductions in all infection-related events. Furthermore, the meta-analysis confirms a survival advantage and this is greatest with the use of fluoroquinolones. These benefits must be weighed against the problem of emerging antibiotic resistance. It has been shown that antibiotic prophylaxis does induce resistant organisms, but some studies have shown that the impact on clinical outcomes may not be as great as expected. Current evidence supports antibiotic prophylaxis with fluoroquinolones in acute leukaemia and high-dose chemotherapy patients, commencing at the same time as chemotherapy. Febrile episodes are much commoner with the first cycle in patients with solid tumours or lymphoma having moderately myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and these patients should be offered prophylaxis for at least the first cycle of chemotherapy. Further work is ongoing to facilitate the selection of patients with the greatest chance of benefit so that prophylaxis can be used efficiently.
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Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). However, the prevalence and clinical conditions of SIBO in patients with FGID remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the frequency of SIBO in patients with refractory FGID.
Species identification of bacteria in the oral cavity of both snakes and their antibiotic susceptibilities.
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Helicobacter pylori, discovered 27 years ago, has remained the most prevalent infectious agent in the world. In the author's hypothesis, the increase of peptic ulcer prevalence in the 19-20th century could be attributable to the extended worldwide use of gastric tubes for secretory testing which led to the iatrogenic transmission of pathogenic strains. Helicobacter pylori outer membrane proteins (OMP), and duodenal ulcer promoting (dupA) proteins were identified as novel virulence factors, leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could be future targets of therapy. There is no ideal first-line eradication of the infection and according to expert's opinion, the efficiency of these regimens has fallen gradually in recent years to unacceptably low levels; however, in the author's opinion this is a multifactorial phenomenon which can not be generalized. As alternative drugs, the efficiency of levofloxacin, furazolidone and rifabutin has been proven by meta-analyses. Sequential and bismuth-free quadruple therapies, although highly efficient, are not yet used on a large scale. The recurrence of the infection is 2.27%/year in developed and of 13.0%/year in developing countries. Spontaneous eradication occurred in 8-20% of the children and 5-11% of adults. The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance is increasing worldwide. In Hungary, it has reached 10.9% in county cities, according to a national survey. In a district of Budapest called Ferencváros, the prevalence between 2005 and 2009 was 16-22%, with no increasing trend. The development of enzymatic inhibitors (urease, carbonic anhydrase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), modified antibiotics and efflux pump inhibitors seem promising ways because these compounds do not lead to resistance; however, none have yet been used in humans.
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Eleven hundred and eighty-five aerobic and anaerobic isolates from general, vascular, cardiothoracic and otolaryngologic surgical patients were tested for susceptibility to garenoxacin and seven other antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole) using the referenced microbroth and agar-dilution method.
To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia during a period of seven years.
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A 1-day application of topical levofloxacin significantly reduced (p = 0.0004) the number of eyes with positive conjunctival cultures from 41 eyes (82%) to 23 eyes (46%). Similarly, a 3-day application significantly reduced (p = 0.0001) the positive culture rate from 37 eyes (74%) to 17 eyes (34%). Two drops of povidone-iodine further reduced the positive culture rate for both groups to 20% (10 eyes for each group). There was no significant difference in positive culture rate between the 1-day and 3-day groups at T0 (p = 0.4689), T1 (p = 0.3074), T2 (p = 0.6706), or T3 (p = 1.000).
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Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with functional dyspepsia or healed peptic ulcers were randomized to receive lansoprazole 30 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg daily with (B-LAL) or without (LAL) bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg b.i.d. for 14 days. Eradication was assessed by ¹³C-urea breath testing 4 weeks after completing treatment. Antimicrobial susceptibility was by the agar dilution method. Success was defined as PP success ≥90%.
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Buruli ulcer (BU) denotes a cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium ulcerans endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions. Treatment may be either medical and surgical or else purely medical for early lesions. The literature contains reports of several cases of transient aggravation of BU following initiation of medical treatment. We report a case observed in the Ivory Coast, one of the areas with the highest prevalence of BU worldwide. The distinguishing features of our case are the early onset of this paradoxical reaction and the multiple cephalic site of lesions.