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Mycobacterium goodii is an infrequent human pathogen which has been implicated in prosthesis related infections and penetrating injuries. It is often initially misidentified as a gram-positive rod by clinical microbiologic laboratories and should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Three patients had a complete response that has been sustained for 21+, 31+, and 41+ months, respectively. One patient had a partial response. Toxic effects included a rise in serum alanine aminotransferase activity in all patients, transient diabetes mellitus in one child, and three episodes of bacteremia in two patients with intravenous access devices.
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There has been intense discussion on the effectiveness of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis for children with vesicoureteral reflux, and randomized, controlled trials are still needed to determine the effectiveness of long-term antibiotics for the prevention of acute pyelonephritis. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we tested the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing recurrence of pyelonephritis and avoiding new scars in a sample of children who were younger than 30 months and vesicoureteral reflux.
The mean follow-up time of the patients was 25.0 +/- 22.5 (range; 6 -66) months. Final visual acuity improved with a mean of 6 +/- 4 lines in 15 patients (78.9%). Inflammatory findings began to subside within 14.8 +/- 10.0 days. Three patients (15.8%) had recurrent attack. Only 1 patient (5.3%) had side effects from therapy.
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160 children with an average age of 9 years (range 6-15) affected by acute bacterial tonsillitis, were selected and assigned, following an open, parallel group design to: a) brodimoprim at the dose of 10 mg/kg on the first day, in single administration, and of 5 mg/kg on the following days; b) cotrimoxazole suspension, at the dosage of 6 mg of trimethoprim/kg/day, in two daily administrations; c) amoxicillin with clavulanic acid suspension (amoxi-clavulanate) 50 mg/kg every 12 hours. Quantity of pharynx and tonsillar exudate, pharynx pain, dysphonia and dysphagia were checked at the basal time, 3rd, 7th and at the last day of therapy. These symptoms were evaluated using a four-step rating scale. The evolution of body temperature was measured at two different times (1 and 5 o'clock p.m.), until the end of treatment, foreseen five days after disappearance of fever. Microbiological evaluation through a pharynx swab was performed at the beginning and at the end of therapy. Side-effects were registered during all the observation period. Lab-tests were carried out at the enrollment and at the end of treatment. The frequency and intensity of symptoms decreased significantly in all treatment groups. In comparison with amoxi-clavulanate, the brodimoprim group showed an earlier improvement (3rd day) of the clinical situation and a significantly better regression of pharynx exudate (p < 0.01), pharynx pain (p < 0.05) and dysphonia (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Drug hypersensitivity has been reported to occur 100 times more commonly in those living with HIV. In the first decade of HIV treatment, this mainly involved drugs used to treat HIV-related infections but now primarily includes drugs used to treat HIV. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical features of drug hypersensitivity reactions of drugs used in the management of the HIV-infected patient.
The pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were studied in 12 healthy adult subjects receiving trimethoprim at 20 mg/kg of body weight per day and sulfamethoxazole at 100 mg/kg/day, which is the conventional dose for treating Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Daily doses were evenly divided and orally administered every 6 h for 3 days. Trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole concentrations in serum and urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Five subjects withdrew from the study because of intolerable gastrointestinal and central nervous system toxicities. In the seven subjects that completed the study, the mean maximum serum drug concentrations after the last dose were 13.6 +/- 2.0, 372 +/- 64, and 50.1 +/- 10.9 micrograms/ml for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, respectively. The mean half-lives were 13.6 +/- 3.5, 14.0 +/- 2.3, and 18.6 +/- 4.3 h, respectively. Changes in absolute neutrophil count were significantly correlated with the minimum concentrations of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in serum and trimethoprim area under the concentration-time curve (for all three parameters, r2 = 0.6 and P less than 0.05). Our findings add to the evidence that serum drug concentrations in adults following the conventional dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for PCP are excessive and contribute to certain adverse reactions. Further studies are indicated in patients to optimize the dosing regimen of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of PCP.
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In a cross-sectional study of HIV-exposed infants 6-18 months of age attending a child immunisation clinic, data from the current visit and previous visits related to CTX prophylaxis, feeding practice and infant HIV testing were extracted from the child's immunisation record. Further information related to the administration of CTX prophylaxis was obtained from an interview with the child's mother.
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This study enrolled 420 HIV infected pregnant women. The prevalence of malaria infection was 4.5%, while that of anaemia was 54%. The proportion of subjects with poor adherence to co-trimoxazole was 50.5%. As compared to HIV infected pregnant women with good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, the poor adherents were more likely to have a malaria infection (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.35-34.43, P = 0.02) or anaemia (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03-2.98, P = 0.039). Other risk factors associated with anaemia were advanced WHO clinical stages, current malaria infection and history of episodes of malaria illness during the index pregnancy.
A follow-up study was conducted at four anticoagulation clinics in The Netherlands. Data on measurements of the International Normalised Ratio (INR), application of a preventive dose reduction (PDR) of the coumarin anticoagulant, fever and time within or outside the therapeutic INR range were collected.