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Initial screening of electronic databases yielded 418 potentially relevant publications. After screening of the titles and full-text examination, five studies were included in the systematic review. Four publications evaluated the effects of PDT adjunctive to SRP in patients with AgP: two of them compared the clinical outcomes of SRP and PDT with a control group that received therapy with SRP and antibiotics (metronidazole and amoxicillin); two publications included SRP and PDT in the test group, and SRP alone in the control group. In one study, PDT was tested as a monotherapy compared with SRP alone.
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In a murine model of Leishmania infantum visceral leishmaniasis, metronidazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine were less effective than antimonial agents in reducing hepatic parasite load. Ketoconazole potentiated the effect of meglumine antimoniate reference therapy through its marked activity against spleen infection.
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Thirty-four patients received metronidazole at a dosage of 250 mg 4 times per day for 10 days, 40 patients received nitazoxanide at a dosage of 500 mg 2 times per day for 7 days, and 36 patients received nitazoxanide at a dosage of 500 mg 2 times per day for 10 days. After 7 days of treatment, 28 (82.4%) of 34 patients had responded to metronidazole therapy, compared with 68 (89.5%) of 76 who had received nitazoxanide therapy (difference, 7.1%; 95% confidence interval, -7.1% to 25.5%). Thirty-one days after beginning treatment, sustained responses were observed in 19 (57.6%) of 33 patients who had received metronidazole therapy for 10 days, compared with 25 (65.8%) of 38 who had received nitazoxanide for 7 days and 26 (74.3%) of 35 who had received nitazoxanide for 10 days (P = .34).
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Metronidazole (MTZ) was the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) with high treatment failure rate, resistance and potential mutagenic and carcinogenic effects so there is urgent need to find out new, effective and safe treatment against B. hominis. The present research aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (NS) at different doses on B. hominis in vitro and in vivo in comparison to MTZ as a control drug. Isolates of B. hominis were obtained from patients complaining of diarrhea and abdominal pain. Isolates were cultured in egg diphasic medium (LE) for in vitro study and to adjust proper inoculating dose for in vivo study. The aqueous extract of NS at concentrations of 100 & 500 µg/ml showed a potent lethal effect on B. hominis isolates in vitro. Caecal tissue of experimentally infected and treated mice with two different doses of NS (250 & 500 mg/kg/d) were examined histopathologically and compared with that of mice infected and treated by two doses of MTZ (62 & 125 mg/kg/d) as control drug and Infected untreated mice as negative control group. Histopathological examination of infected untreated group showed all pathological degrees in the caecal tissue while infected treated one showed remission of pathological changes especially with higher dose (500 mg/kg). Present study proved that N. sativa had inhibitory effect on B. hominis in vitro and prevented cytopathic effect in infected mice inoculated orally with B. hominis.
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In this first prospective examination of sequential i.v./oral therapy for complicated intra-abdominal infections, conversion to oral therapy with ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole appears as effective as continued i.v. therapy for patients able to tolerate oral feedings. Patients who can tolerate oral intake may be treated with appropriate oral antimicrobials and are not at any significant increased risk for failure.
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Studies examining the prevalence, baseline characteristics and outcome of patients admitted with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) are not readily available in Nigeria. This study aims to evaluate the management of CAP at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria with a view to determining the prevalence, characteristics, severity and outcome of the admitted patients.
We evaluated the antibiotic resistance rates and eradication rates of clarithromycin based triple therapy from 2005 to 2010 retrospectively. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Korean patients. Two hundred and twelve strains of H. pylori were isolated from 204 patients. H. pylori ATCC 43504 was used as the standard strain. The eradication rates of H. pylori from 2005 to 2010 were 89.3%, 82.6%, 86.3%, 87.7%, 81.8%, and 84.2%, respectively. Total eradication rate was 84.9%. DNA sequences of the 23S RNA gene in clarithromycin-resistant strains were determined. The resistance rates of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin were 9.0%, 8.5%, 36.3%, 0%, 14.2%, 14.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. The multidrug resistance rate of H. pylori was 16.5%. Sequence analysis of clarithromycin-resistant strains showed an A2144G mutation in 8 of 14 strains (57.1%), a T2183C mutation in 5 of 14 strains (35.7%), and double mutations of both A2144G and T2183C in 1 of 14 strains (7.1%). In the present study, triple therapy may still be an effective eradication therapy for H. pylori infections in Korea. The A2144G and T2183C mutations are mainly present in clarithromycin-resistant isolates.