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We conducted an epidemiological study of Staphylococcus intermedius using arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and antibiograms. One hundred and twenty-five S. intermedius isolates were recovered from the oral cavity and/or cranial hair coat of healthy dogs enrolled in a pet therapy program. Commensal S. intermedius was cultured from 32% of the oral cavity cultures and 13% of the cranial hair coat cultures. We characterized the colonization of the dogs as transient, intermittent, or persistent. For dogs characterized as persistently colonized, 73% of the isolates came from the oral cavity. These isolates were also genotyped by AP-PCR. A single major AP-PCR type was observed in 91% of the dogs (n=22); minor variations were frequently observed in these major types. Antibiograms of these commensal isolates were compared to antibiograms from 97 historical clinical isolates (1988-1992) obtained from cases of canine pyoderma. Resistance was most often observed to penicillin (64% and 55%) and tetracycline (38% and 38%) among the commensal and clinical isolates, respectively. The commensal isolates were significantly less resistant to erythromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Our data suggests that differences in both genotype and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes exist among S. intermedius strains isolated from different anatomic sites from the same dog and supports the opportunistic nature of S. intermedius in canine infections.
We treated five patients with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. Surgical intervention or a "second-line" antistaphylococcal agent was required for bacteriologic cure in each. Special bacteriologic evaluation failed to demonstrate methicillin resistance or antibiotic "tolerance" among the strains of Staphylococcus tested. Cephalosporin agents were noted to be more susceptible to inoculum effect than either methicillin or nafcillin. All patients survived; the explanation for their atypical course is obscure. We present an approach to patients with persistent Staph. aureus bacteremia and endocarditis.
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Antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads were surgically implanted into the mandible of an adult Bennett's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus) suffering from chronic mandibular osteomyelitis that had proven refractory to systemic antibiotic treatment. Although a discrete inflammatory mass remained, clinical signs of inappetance and a discharging sinus were alleviated following implantation of the beads. This procedure resulted in a more satisfactory outcome than other methods of treatment used previously for this condition and avoided the problems associated with regular handling and prolonged medication.
Outbreaks of invasive infection caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occur in hospitals, long term care institutions, and in patients discharged from these settings. In contrast, epidemic S. aureus infection has not been reported in well persons in the community. Here, we describe a group of healthy young adults who resided in the same neighborhood and participated together in school sports, and who developed serious S. aureus infections within 3 weeks of each other, suggesting a true community outbreak. Timely use of molecular epidemiological tools, however, demonstrated that their illnesses were caused by unrelated bacterial strains.
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An audit to ascertain the effectiveness of drainage combined with a three day standard dose antimicrobial regime for patients with acute dentoalveolar abscess and associated systemic symptoms.
The interesting in vitro antimicrobial activity and pharmacokinetics of the new quinolone trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) warranted further studies to determine its in vivo efficacy in models of infectious disease. The significance of the pharmacokinetic and in vitro antimicrobial profiles of trovafloxacin was shown through efficacy in a series of animal infection models by employing primarily oral therapy. Against acute infections, trovafloxacin was consistently more effective than temafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae and other gram-positive pathogens while maintaining activity comparable to that of ciprofloxacin against gram-negative organisms. In a model of murine pneumonia, trovafloxacin was more efficacious than temafloxacin, while ciprofloxacin failed against S. pneumoniae (50% protective doses, 2.1, 29.5, and >100 mg/kg, respectively). In addition to its inherent in vitro potency advantage against S. pneumoniae, these data were supported by a pharmacokinetic study that showed levels of trovafloxacin in pulmonary tissue of S. pneumoniae-infected CF1 mice to be considerably greater than those of temafloxacin and ciprofloxacin (twice the maximum drug concentration in serum; two to three times the half-life, and three to six times the area under the concentration-time curve). Against localized mixed anaerobic infections, trovafloxacin was the only agent to effectively reduce the numbers of recoverable CFU of Bacteroides fragilis ( >1,000-fold), Staphylococcus aureus (1,000-fold), and Escherichia coli ( >100-fold) compared with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, metronidazole, clindamycin, cefoxitin, and ceftriaxone. The in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of trovafloxacin and its pharmacokinetics in laboratory animals provide support for the ongoing and planned human phase II and III clinical trials.
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The adverse drug reaction database of the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre was searched for reports concerning taste disorders with antibiotics. Clinical review of the cases and statistical analysis with logistic regression were performed. Characteristics of patients who reported taste disorders were compared for age, gender and formulation in clindamycin vs. other antibiotic users.
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To report a case of parapharyngeal abscess associated with Streptococcus viridans in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis receiving treatment with etanercept.
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Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) has been reported from many parts of the world including Asian countries. Hence, main objective of study was to evaluate the possible occurrence of VRSA in hospitals of Lahore city and to ensure the effectiveness of various substitute therapeutic options. A total of 150 samples of pus/wounds were collected from three hospitals of the city and VRSA were isolated and confirmed through recommended method of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Out of 51 (49.04%) methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, 5 (9.8%) were found resistant to vancomycin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Linezolid (LZD), Moxifloxacin (MFX) and Clindamycin (CD) were calculated against VRSA isolates by broth microdilution test. All 5 (100%) isolates were susceptible to Linezolid and Clindamycin, while 4 (80%) were susceptible to Moxifloxacin. Ethanolic extracts of Turmeric, Mint, Coriander, Garlic, Kalonji, Cinnamon and Cloves illustrate average MIC values of 140.8 μg/mL, 563.2 μg/mL, 486.4 μg/mL, 614.4 μg/mL, 409.6 μg/mL, 281.6 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL, respectively against 5 VRSA strains. Concentration dependent increase in growth inhibition zones of ethanolic plant extract was recorded by agar well diffusion test. This study was helpful to find out the effective antibiotic against VRSA. Plant extracts encompass anti-staphylococcal activity and this finding demands necessity of further exploration of potential found in these natural herb.
Collaborative studies documented the reproducibility of broth microdilution susceptibility tests of Streptococcus pneumoniae against nine antimicrobial agents and of disk diffusion tests with six of those drugs. Replicate tests of Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 in five different laboratories led to the following provisional quality control limits: cefdinir--0.03 to 0.25 microgram/ml and 26 to 31 mm; cefetamet--0.5 to 2 micrograms/ml and 20 to 25 mm; ciprofloxacin--0.25 to 1 microgram/ml and 20 to 26 mm; clinafloxacin--0.03 to 0.125 microgram/ml and 28 to 34 mm; grepafloxacin--0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml and 21 to 28 mm; PD131628--0.125 to 0.5 microgram/ml and 24 to 29 mm; clindamycin--0.03 to 0.12 microgram/ml; cefpodoxime--0.03 to 0.12 microgram/ml; and trospectomycin--1 to 4 microgram/ml (disk tests were not evaluate for the latter three drugs).