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Clarithromycin has bacteriologic efficacy against M avium infection in late-stage AIDS, although drug resistance eventually develops. Further studies are needed to investigate safe, effective concomitant drugs.
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Among gout and FMF patients separately, we assessed linear trends in colchicine prescriptions, prescription drug costs, and total health care costs from 2009 to September 2010 (market exclusivity announced) compared to January 2011 (market exclusivity enforced) through 2012. Next, we estimated trends in co-prescription within 15 days of clarithromycin, azithromycin (indicated on the Colcrys label for use in place of clarithromycin), and cyclosporine.
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has effectively decreased the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs), and thereby reduced research efforts to find alternative treatments to prevent or treat OIs. However, research on treating OIs is still needed. For instance, It is suggested that people who are co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) should not use protease inhibitors (PIs), because both PIs and HCV significantly strain the liver, and that could increase the risk of liver disease. On the positive side, a study of co-infected people found favorable results in treating HCV with Interferon-alfa, and recently a more effective combination was found with Interferon-alfa plus Ribavirin. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) has been successfully treated with Clarithromycin and Ethambutol, but resistance to Clarithromycin can develop. A recent study on MAC added Rifabutin to the treatment which prevented the development of resistant MAC. Suggestions are also provided for how to effectively treat cryptococcal meningitis and chronic diarrhea. The discontinuation of maintenance therapy of OIs is discussed, and recommendations are given on who may be able to discontinue maintenance therapy. Pharmaceutical companies are encouraged to continue researching, developing, and marketing affordable and accessible therapies to combat opportunistic infections.
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Gastric biopsy specimens from 212 untreated patients with dyspepsia were examined by culture, histology, and DPO-based multiplex PCR. A disk diffusion test and E-test were used for performing phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility tests.
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On an intention-to-treat basis, 182 patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcer were randomized. Group OCB patients (n = 91) were given omeprazole 40 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and colloidal bismuth subcitrate 120 mg q.i.d. for 7 days. Group OCA patients (n = 91) were treated with omeprazole and clarithromycin at the same doses plus amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., also for 7 days. Endoscopies were performed at entry and at 4 wk after the end of treatment. The presence of H. pylori was assessed by urease test, histology, Gram stain, and culture. No patient received follow-up treatment.
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A number of clinical studies have assessed the efficacy of short-term twice-daily Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens but few have investigated the proportion of patients in whom duodenal ulcer disease was healed with these regimens.
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Histological and ultrastructural studies of gastric mucosa with spiral bacteria had been published at the Royal Perth Hospital of Western Australia in 1979. The pathologist Warren correlated them with inflammation. In 1981, Marshall was training in internal medicine. Warren, Marshall and Goodwin started culture of bacteria, but spiral bacteria were not cultured. The 35th culture was left during the Easter holiday, and after 5 days 1-mm transparent colonies were seen on the plate. Since discovery Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) have continued to fascinate and challenge doctors and scientists for 18 years to come. In 2000, triple therapy with PPI, Amoxicillin and clarithromycin was approved for treatment of peptic ulcer disease in Japan.
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Clarithromycin stimulated cyclic gastroduodenal motility, while amoxycillin was ineffective. It is likely that symptoms during the eradication treatment are due to this effect of clarithromycin.