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Vibrio cholerae is a serious public health problem worldwide, but in the UK, V. cholerae infections are rare. Here, we report a case of V. cholerae bacteraemia in an elderly patient. To our knowledge, this is the first non-travel-related V cholerae bacteraemia in the UK.
In these children with acute otitis media, azithromycin given once daily for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate given three times daily for 10 days had similar efficacy; however, azithromycin was significantly better tolerated.
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We recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics rather than empirical postoperative antibiotics for patients undergoing complex septorhinoplasty.
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NTHI readily formed a biofilm on Nasopore. Treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate alone mediated an increase in biomass by 92% to 6.63 μ(2) /μ(3) compared to incubation in sterile medium alone (3.46 μ(2) /μ(3)). Treatment with anti-IHF alone reduced the biomass by 77% to 1.29 μ(2) /μ(3) compared to incubation with naïve rabbit serum (5.53 μ(2) /μ(3)). Anti-IHF + amoxicillin/clavulanate reduced biomass by 88% to 0.66 μ(2) /μ(3) (P <0.02) compared to incubation with naïve rabbit serum.
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The aim of this study targeted the evaluation of the in vivo effect of moxifloxacin in the treatment of patients with severe odontogenic abscesses. This was a prospective, two-armed, randomised, unblinded, monocentric pilot study, which enrolled 21 hospitalized patients with severe odontogenic abscesses. After extraoral incision, patients were either treated with moxifloxacin 400 mg i.v. once daily or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 2.2 g i.v. three times daily. Primary clinical endpoint was the time until clinical remission, represented by simultaneous assertion of the following criteria: body temperature <38.5 degrees C, no pain at palpation, and mouth opening similar or better than preoperatively. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein, pain, health related quality of life (HR-QoL) and length of hospital stay were recorded as secondary outcome criteria. The mean duration until reaching the primary end point was 6.6 (range, 4.3-8.8) days in the moxifloxacin group and 6.0 (range, 3.8-8.2) days in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid group. Median days of in-house treatment ranged between five and six days for both groups. HR-QoL was highly impaired in both groups preoperatively and reached near normal on days three and four in both samples. In this pilot investigation, moxifloxacin showed promising results as compared to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Therefore, a larger prospective clinical trial using moxifloxacin in severe odontogenic abscesses appears encouraging. We suggest a combination of body temperature, palpatory pain, and subjective pain as a parameter for successful intervention; however, both findings need prospective validation by means of a phase III evaluation.
Of the examined subjects, 65% were males and 35% were females, their mean age being 66.4 +/- 8.86, and who were mostly smokers (73%). After the completion Of Applied antibiotic treatment, a significant reduction and normalization of all inflammation markers were recorded, as well as a significant improvement of the patients' subjective symptoms. The positive microbiological sputum findings (Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae) were recorded in 13.58% of the patients. The bacterial agent was eradicated on the third day of the applied treatment. The mean length of the treatment was 7.07 +/- 0.91 days, with no undesirable treatment side effects observed CONCLUSION The antibiotic therapy is justifiable as the initial treatment regimen of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid is reported as the first-line antibiotic drug in most pharmacotherapy guidelines.
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The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of Moraxella catarrhalis in patients with respiratory tract infections. Overall 514 specimens including 370 throat swabs and 114 sputum specimens were examined. The 78 strains isolated basing on morphological and biochemical characteristics were classified as Moraxella catarrhalis. The sensitivity of the strains to antibiotics was also estimated. The frequency of M. catarrhalis isolation from the throat swabs (15.9%) was higher than from the sputum (13.2%). Selected 25 specimens of sputum were tested simultaneously by quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative method was more sensitive (84% positive findings) than qualitative method (60% positive findings). Resistance to ampicillin was found in 52 (66.7%) strains of M. catarrhalis determined mainly by beta-lactamase production (over 70% strains were producers of beta-lactamase). All strains were sensitive to ofloxacin and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid combination. The frequency of M. catarrhalis isolation was higher in autumn-winter period than in summer (May-September). We conclude that M. catarrhalis, beside Streptococcus pyogenes (20.2%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.1%), are the most frequently isolated bacteria in patients with respiratory tract infections.
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The combination of amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole is a widely-accepted empirical regimen for infections of the odontogenic spaces. Once adequate drainage has been established micro-organisms are less likely to grow and multiply, particularly anaerobes. This may obviate the need for anaerobic coverage after drainage in healthy hosts. We studied 60 patients in this randomised prospective study, the objective of which was to evaluate metronidazole as part of an empirical antibiotic regimen after drainage of infections of the odontogenic spaces. Samples of pus were sent for culture and testing for sensitivity. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole were given to all patients. After incision and drainage the patients were randomly allocated to two groups. In the first group both antibiotics were continued, and in the second metronidazole was withdrawn. The groups were compared both clinically and microbiologically. There were no significant differences between the groups in the resolution of infection. Thirteen patients (n=6 in the 2-antimicrobial group, and n=7 in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group) showed no improvement during the 48 h postoperatively. Overall there was need to substitute another antibiotic for amoxicillin/clavulanate in only 6 cases. Six patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group required the addition of metronidazole after drainage. We conclude that in healthy subjects metronidazole is not necessary in the period after drainage, but its prescription should be based on assessment of clinical and laboratory markers of infection.
Mean aerobic and anaerobic oral bacterial counts were decreased in both topical treatment groups compared with the placebo group on the first postoperative day, achieving statistical significance with Augmentin/Timentin (aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts) and Cleocin (aerobic counts). Significantly less postoperative pain and mouth odor were reported for both Cleocin (P = 0.014 and P = 0.005, respectively) and Augmentin/Timentin (P = 0.026 and P = 0.05, respectively) topical treatment groups when compared with the placebo group.
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The efficacy and safety of ceftibuten (9 mg/kg daily for 10 days) were compared with those of amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin 40 mg/kg/day given every 8 hours for 10 days) in the empiric treatment of acute otitis media in children. This was a multicenter, investigator-blinded study with 1:1 randomization. Overall clinical response and signs and symptoms of otitis were collected prospectively pretreatment, 3 to 5 days during treatment, 1 to 3 days post-treatment and at 2- to 4-week follow-up. In addition to spontaneous reports of other adverse events, gastrointestinal adverse events were prospectively elicited at each visit. Two hundred ninety-six patients (146 ceftibuten and 150 amoxicillin/clavulanate) were treated with at least 1 dose of study medication. Compliance with dosing was assessable with weight of drug consumed in 127 patients in each treatment group. Five percent (6 of 127) of ceftibuten patients and 11% (14 of 127) of amoxicillin/clavulanate patients received < 80% of prescribed drug (P = 0.10) and were therefore not valid. Two hundred twenty-two patients (121 ceftibuten and 101 amoxicillin/clavulanate) received a minimum of 80% of prescribed medication and were compliant with the protocol. Ceftibuten and amoxicillin/clavulanate groups were comparable both for demographic variables and for baseline signs and symptoms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)