We analyzed the beta-lactamase production of a Serratia fonticola isolated for its resistance to cefuroxime (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration > 256 mg/l) in December 1993 from a patient hospitalized in Meaux. The wild strain was resistant to amoxycillin but sensitive to augmentin, that suggested the production of a beta-lactamase susceptible to clavulanic acid. For the wild strain, beta-lactamase production was inducible and only one enzyme with an isoelectric point of 8.12 was detected. beta-lactamase production was 16 mU/mg for non-induced extracts and ranged from 100 to 230 mU/mg in the presence of inducing beta-lactams (enzyme activity was measured with penicillin G as substrate). On a Szybalski gradient a constitutive strain was obtained. Its enzyme production was 13,000 mU/mg. The kinetics and isoelectric points of the enzymes produced by the two strains were identical. This beta-lactamase hydrolyzes penicillins (amoxycillin: Vm = 60 relative to penicillin G = 100, ticarcillin: 15), first generation cephalosporins (cephalothin Vm = 930). However, this enzyme hydrolyzes efficiently oxyimino-cephalosporins: cefuroxime (Vm = 70) and cefotaxime (Vm = 120), but cephamycins are not substrates. Clavulanic acid has a very good affinity for this beta-lactamase (Ki = 0.09 microM) which is inactivated progressively (I50 = 0.045 microgram/ml). These properties shows some similarities with those of the class A beta-lactamases of P. vulgaris RO104 (pI = 8.3), P. penneri 14HBC (pI = 6.65) and the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum MEN-1 (pI = 8.4).
Three middle-aged males and one female were diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (UTIs) between 2001 and 2003 in the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Of the 4 patients, only the female was asymptomatic. The 3 males had Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species, and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, in their urine samples, while the female had Escherichia coli. All 4 patients were treated with grapefruit seeds (Citrus paradisi) orally for 2 weeks and they all responded satisfactorily to the treatment except the man with P. aeruginosa isolate. However, the initial profuse growth of Pseudomonas isolate in the patient that was resistant to gentamicin, tarivid, and augmentin later subsided to mild growth with reversal of the antibiotic resistance pattern after 2 weeks' treatment with grapefruit seeds. These preliminary data thus suggest an antibacterial characteristic of dried or fresh grapefruit seeds (C. paradisi) when taken at a dosage of 5 to 6 seeds every 8 hours, that is comparable to that of proven antibacterial drugs.
Of a total of 22,455 adverse medicine reaction (AMR) reports there were 943 reports of liver injury (4.2%). Two hundred and five drugs were associated with hepatic reactions. The top 20 drugs accounted for 57% of all liver reactions. Fifty-seven percent were reported in females. Hepatotoxicity was most commonly reported among patients 50-80 years old. Liver reactions were associated with a 3.3% mortality, but were responsible for 7.4% of all fatal occurrences. There was a steady increase in the number of reports over the 21 years. Although the largest number of reports of liver injury were received between 1988 and 1994, mortality was lowest during this period. There were substantial differences in the medicines associated with hepatic reactions during each of the three periods, although erythromycin was the commonest cause throughout. Erythromycin was associated with two deaths. Halothane and perhexilene were the most frequent cause of death and were two of the most important causes of liver injury during the first and second periods. Diclofenac, Augmentin and flucloxacillin were important causes of hepatotoxicity during period 3 but were not associated with a fatal outcome.
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This study determined the microbial composition of the apical parts of the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane surfaces facing the gingiva and the tooth in guided tissue regeneration. Microbial and clinical features of 2-to-3 wall periodontal bony defects treated with membranes with and without concomitant use of systemic Augmentin therapy were also determined. 18 patients with 18 study sites participated. 9 patients received systemic 500 mg Augmentin 1 h prior to surgery, and 500 mg TID for 8 days thereafter. 9 patients received no systemic antimicrobial therapy. Microbiological examination was performed 1 h prior to surgery, at the time of membrane removal at week 6, and at 6 months post-surgery. Microbial morphotypes, total viable counts, and the occurrence of selected microbial species were determined by phase-contrast microscopy, selective and non-selective culture, and DNA probes. Study sites were examined for probing pocket depths and attachment levels. At baseline, no microbial or clinical parameter showed statistical differences between groups. At 6 months, the Augmentin group demonstrated a significantly higher (P = 0.032; Student t-test) mean probing attachment gain (36.5% of potential gain to the cemento-enamel junction) than the 9 control patients (22.4% of potential gain). At the time of removal, membranes in the Augmentin group showed significantly fewer organisms than membranes in the control group (52.2 x 10(6) versus 488.6 x 10(6)). Sites free of pathogens on the membrane surface toward the tooth gained the most clinical attachment, even in the presence of various pathogens on the gingiva-facing membrane surface.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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In this prospective, multicenter, centrally-randomized, open-label study, 73 general practitioners and 11 ear, nose, and throat specialists included 512 patients with unilateral acute maxillary sinusitis.
Six hundred ninety-two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from blood cultures of 692 patients in 15 Israeli hospitals over a two year period. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested by the standard disk diffusion technique. Of these isolates, 41.6% were methicillin-resistant (MRSA). All 288 MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and pristinomycin; 98.6% were sensitive to fucidine; 97.9% to imipenem; 79% to rifampicin; 63.6% to amikacin; 54.5% to augmentin; 36.4% to clindamycin; 12.6% to ciprofloxacin; 11.9% to cotrimoxazole and ofloxacin; 10.5% to gentamicin; 9.8% to erythromycin; and 8.4% to norfloxacin. Phage typing was determined by using the international set of phages. All the isolates that were sensitive to Group I phages, and 91.8% of those sensitive to Group II phages, were sensitive to methicillin. Of the isolates that were sensitive to Group III phages, 79.2% were methicillin-resistant and 72.4% of the latter were sensitive to phages 75/85. Of the isolates that were sensitive to Group III and miscellaneous phages, 50.7% were methicillin-resistant and 71% of the latter were sensitive to phages 75/85 as well.
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Augmentin is a new combination manufactured by Smith Kline Beecham (Great Britain). It is composed of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid and has antibacterial activity. Augmentin was used in clinical trials in the therapy of 50 adult patients with suppurations after surgical operations on the organs of the abdominal cavity, general staphylococcal infections, pneumonia and prophylactically during the preoperative period. It was also used in the treatment of 30 children patients with bronchopulmonary affections and inflammatory otorhinolaryngological diseases. The clinical trials were performed in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the N. G. Gabrichevskiĭ Moscow Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. For comparison ampicillin was used in the trials. Augmentin was shown to be an efficient formulation with antibacterial activity which could be successfully used in the parenteral therapy of severe affections due to organisms sensitive to it. In the treatment of the children patients with pneumonia augmentin by its therapeutic efficacy proved to be superior to ampicillin. The tolerance of augmentin was good.
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True regeneration of the dental pulp-dentin complex in immature teeth with necrotic pulps has not been shown histologically. It is not known to what extent this true tissue regeneration is necessary to achieve clinically acceptable outcomes.
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Cefixime was 8 to 10 times more active than cefaclor and augmentin against isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, MIC90 values ranging from 0.06 to 0.25 micrograms/ml. However, none of these three drugs was particularly active against isolates of more resistant gram-negative bacilli such as Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Providencia and Achromobacter spp. The lowest MIC values for gram-negative bacilli were seen with ciprofloxacin, except for isolates of Acinetobacter, where cotrimoxazole was the most active of the five drugs studied. Augmentin and ciprofloxacin exhibited the lowest MICs for isolates of streptococci and corynebacteria. Although cefixime may be among the most active oral beta-lactam drugs, it does not appear to be useful for treatment of infections caused by more resistant gram-negative bacilli.