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The high prevalence of primary antibiotic resistance was out of expectation in H. pylori strains isolated from the children in Beijing. Antibiotic susceptibility should be made clear before the antibiotic was used in the anti-H. pylori therapy in this population. The A2143G was the most populated mutation in macrolide-resistant strains, and Asn87 and Asp91 of GyrA were the most common mutation points in quinolone resistance strains.
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Older male volunteers suffering from chronic sinusitis and not taking antibiotics were at higher risk for carrying SA.
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This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Gambian women in labor were given either an oral dose of azithromycin (2 g) or placebo. Follow-up was conducted for 8 weeks after delivery.
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The characteristics of study participants enrolled in each arm were similar except for a small difference in the age distribution. Risk of reinfection was 20% lower among women in the patient-delivered partner treatment arm (87/728; 12%) than among those in the self-referral arm (106/726; 15%); however, this difference was not statistically significant (odds ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-1.05; = 0.102). Women in the patient-delivered partner treatment arm reported high compliance with the intervention (82%).
Reported macrolide resistance of S. pneumoniae varies substantially and may be a significant issue in certain regions. Use of meta-analysis to aggregate individual studies enabled determination of robust values for macrolide resistance. This information is useful for clinical and policy decision makers in developing appropriate antibiotic strategies.
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The N-demethylation of macrolides was studied in a murine model of infection. Mice were infected with a cystogenic strain of Toxoplasma gondii (20 or 40 cysts/mouse) and microsomes were prepared from liver homogenates and jejunum villus tip enterocytes on day 10 post-infection. The rate of N-demethylation of the anti-Toxoplasma macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin and clindamycin was investigated and compared to that of the macrolide erythromycin, a marker of activity of the cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A) mono-oxygenases. In infected mice (20 cysts/mouse), the rate of N-demethylation fell in the liver and jejunum for erythromycin (-25% and -35%, respectively), azithromycin (-12% and -10%, respectively), clarithromycin (-23% and -21%, respectively) and clindamycin (-20% and -28%, respectively). The degree of hepatic depression was more marked in mice receiving a 40-cysts burden: for erythromycin (-54%), azithromycin (-29%), clarithromycin (-49%) and clindamycin (-47%).
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This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.