The susceptibility of 11 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 3 M. kansasii, 3 M. xenopi, 2 M. scrofulaceum, 2 M. marinum, 2 M. malmoense to fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin was determined by the standard proportion method (Middlebrook 7H10 agar). All M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. xenopi, M. scrofulaceum, M. marinum, and M, malmoense isolates including those resistant to conventional antimycobacterials were inhibited by 0.5 mg/l of fleroxacin and ciprofloxacin, the lowest tested concentration. Fleroxacin and ciprofloxacin along with ofloxacin, pefloxacin, ansamycin, clofazimine and cycloserine were also tested against 14 isolates of the M. avium complex. Nine of 14 strains (64%) of the M. avium complex were found susceptible to 4 mg/l of fleroxacin and a similar percentage to the other quinolones. On the basis of its in-vitro potency and its favourable pharmacokinetic properties fleroxacin appears to be sufficiently active to warrant further experimental trials against difficult to treat mycobacteria.
Lomefloxacin (NY-198), a new antimicrobial quinolone, was examined for its antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates and clinical efficacies to biliary tract infections. The following results were obtained. 1. The MICs of NY-198 against Escherichia coli (20 strains) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (20 strains) were good and similar to those of ofloxacin (OFLX) or norfloxacin (NFLX). The MICs of NY-198 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20 strains) were inferior by 1 dilution factor to OFLX or NFLX, and against Enterococcus faecalis (10 strains), they were similar to NFLX and slightly inferior to OFLX. 2. NY-198 was administered to 8 patients with biliary tract infections (acute cholecystitis 7 cases, chronic cholangitis 1 case). The results were good in 7 and unevaluable in 1 case because the duration of the therapy was too short. 3. As for side effects, mild urticaria was observed in 1 case and epigastralgia with nausea in another. As for abnormal laboratory test values slight elevations of GOT and GPT were recognized in 1 case. 4. In conclusion, we consider NY-198 is a useful oral drug for the treatment of biliary tract infections.
gyrablock 400 mg norfloxacin alcohol
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli(EPEC) is a major cause of diarrhoea in children below 5 years of age. Serotyping is classical method for identification of EPEC strains. But serotypic markers are rarely sufficient to reliably identify the strains as Escherichia coli. Introduction of PCR methodology which depends on detection of virulence factors has provided a practical and rapid way of detecting diarrhoeagenic Esch.coli. Multiantibiotic resistant EPEC strains are a common phenomenon with world wide extension. Moreover for the selection of appropriate therapy of dirrhoeas, knowledge of local antimicrobial therapy pattern plays an important role.
gyrablock 400 tablets
An open randomised controlled clinical trial with 160 adults with acute watery diarrhoea and severe dehydration compared the efficacy of varying regimens of norfloxacin and doxycycline for the treatment of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae 0139 Bengal. Data were analysed for the 111 patients who were faeces culture positive for V. cholerae 0139. In addition to rehydration therapy, 28 patients received 300 mg of doxycycline as a single dose on admission, 26 patients received norfloxacin 400 mg bd for three days, 28 patients received a single dose of 800 mg of norfloxacin and 29 patients received no antibiotic (control group). Patients in the three treatment groups and control group had comparable characteristics on admission. All three treatment groups had reduced stool output, duration of diarrhoea and fluid intake compared with the control group. Multidose norfloxacin treatment significantly reduced stool output, duration of diarrhoea and fluid requirement compared with the other regimens.
This study was performed to determine the prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile in beef and mutton meats consumed as human food in Isfahan, central part of Iran. Furthermore the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ribotyping employed to compare the genetic pattern of positive isolates in meat with clinical ones.
gyrablock 400 mg norfloxacin
A novel series of quinolone triazoles were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR, MS and HRMS spectra. All the newly prepared compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against seven bacteria and four fungi. Bioactive assay manifested that most of new compounds exhibited good or even stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains including multi-drug resistant MRSA in comparison with reference drugs Norfloxacin, Chloromycin and Fluconazole. The preliminary interactive investigations of compound 6b with calf thymus DNA by fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopic methods revealed that compound 6b could effectively intercalate DNA to form compound 6b-DNA complex which might block DNA replication and thus exert its antimicrobial activities.
gyrablock 400 mg dosage
This study was conducted to examine a current baseline profile of antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Escherichia coli isolated from foods commonly sold in the market place in Vietnam. E. coli were isolated from 180 samples of raw meat, poultry and shellfish and also isolated from 43 chicken faeces samples. Ninety-nine E. coli isolates recovered from all sources were selected for the investigation of their susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. Eighty-four percent of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and multi-resistance, defined as resistance to at least 3 different classes of antibiotics, was detected in all sources. The rates of multi-resistance were up to 89.5% in chicken, 95% in chicken faeces and 75% in pork isolates. Resistance was most frequently observed to tetracycline (77.8%), sulfafurazole (60.6%), ampicillin (50.5%), amoxicillin (50.5%), trimethoprim (51.5%), chloramphenicol (43.4%), streptomycin (39.4%), nalidixic acid (34.3%) and gentamicin (24.2%). In addition, the isolates also displayed resistance to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin 16.2%, norfloxacin 17.2%, and enrofloxacin 21.2%), with chicken isolates showing the highest rates of resistance to these antibiotics (52.6-63.2%). Thirty-eight multi-resistant isolates were selected for further the examination of antibiotic resistance genes and were also evaluated for virulence gene profiles by multiplex and uniplex polymerase chain reaction. The beta-lactam TEM gene and tetracycline resistance tetA, tetB genes were frequently detected in the tested isolates (84.2% and 89.5% respectively). Genes which are responsible for resistance to streptomycin (aadA) (68.4%), chloramphenicol (cmlA) (42.1%), sulfonamides (sulI) (39.5%), trimethoprim (dhfrV) (26.3%) and kanamycin (aphA-1) (23.7%) were also widely distributed. Plasmid-mediated ampC genes were detected in E. coli isolates from chicken and pork. The isolates were tested for the presence of 58 virulence genes for adhesins, toxins, capsule synthesis, siderophores, invasins and others from different E. coli pathotypes. All of the tested isolates contained at least one virulence gene and there were 16 genes detected. Virulence genes detected were fimH (92.1%), bmaE (84.2%), TSPE4.C2 (42.1%), aidA AIDA-I (orfB) (31.6%), east1 (26.3%), traT (23.7%), and others including fyuA, iutA, chuA, yjaA, iss, iroN(E. coli), ibeA, aah (orfA), iha and papG allele III (10.5-2.6%). Typical toxin genes produced by enterohemorrhagic and enterotoxigenic E. coli pathotypes (a heat-stable toxin (ST), heat-labile toxin (LT) and Shiga toxin stx1, stx2) were not detected in any of these 38 isolates. The study has revealed that E. coli in raw foods is a significant reservoir of resistance and virulence genes.
In vitro activity of four fluorinated quinolones: pefloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin were determined against various clinical isolates of mycobacteria. The method of agar dilution was used, seventy strains of ten species were tested: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (25), Mycobacterium bovis (5), Mycobacterium africanum (2), BCG (5), Mycobacterium kansasii (6), Mycobacterium marinum (5), Mycobacterium avium (11), Mycobacterium xenopi (6), Mycobacterium chelonae (3), Mycobacterium fortuitum (2). Except for Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium chelonae (CMI 100% greater than 8 mg/l) fluorinated quinolones showed activity against tested mycobacteria (CMI 100% less than or equal to 8 mg/l). Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin where found to be the most active. Their activity against the different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was unrelated to their susceptibility or resistance to the antituberculous drugs.