Augmentin (875 amoxicillin and 125 mg potassium clavulanate) was administered orally to patients with chronic bronchitis. Concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were measured in serum, sputum and urine. Peak serum levels for amoxicillin of 11.23 +/- 2.61 micrograms/ml were observed at 2 hours and for clavulanic acid of 2.55 +/- 0.54 micrograms/ml at 1 hour. After 9 hours, 50% of the amoxicillin and 39% of the clavulanic acid had been renally excreted. The peak sputum concentration of amoxicillin was 1.31 +/- 0.42 micrograms/ml at 4 hours and of clavulanate was 0.79 +/- 0.23 micrograms/ml at 2 hours. Patients awaiting surgery received an oral dose of augmentin as above. Samples of lung, tonsil, middle ear mucosa and prostate were obtained and tissue concentrations of both compounds measured. Peak levels of amoxicillin ranged from 0.87 micrograms/g (tonsil) to 2.56 micrograms/g (lung) and of clavulanic acid from 0.20 micrograms/g (prostate) to 0.56 micrograms/g (lung) between 3 and 4 hours after dosing.
The main indications for PEG insertions are the following: stroke/CVA/diffuse cerebral vascular disease, neurological conditions, e.g. head injury, motor neurone disease, Multiple Sclerosis etc. Peristomal infection can sometimes complicate PEG placement. Antibiotics, either prophylaxis or concurrent, can reduce the incidence of peristomal wound infection after PEG placement.
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To evaluate the palatability of antimicrobial agents effective against beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in American children.
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Blood taken from newborn babies admitted to the special care baby unit at the Khyber Teaching Hospital with a clinical diagnosis of neonatal sepsis was cultured. The data obtained from October 1997 to December 2000 were analysed and the results tabulated.
There has been an increase in the resistance of both Co-amoxiclav and Ciprofloxacin since 2009. Co-amoxiclav and trimethoprim now have similar resistance rates. Ciprofloxacin resistance has risen fairly quickly in the last four years from 1% to 8%. Resistance to nitrofurantoin has remained low. Gentamicin resistance remained stable and very low, second best to meroponem.
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In an open, randomized study of 60 patients with acute or recurrent sinusitis, the bacteriological and clinical efficacy of roxithromycin 150 mg bd were compared with those of po co-amoxiclav (625 mg) tds. Of 52 patients who underwent sinus puncture for isolation of causative organisms, 48 had pathogens sensitive to both antibiotics. Satisfactory clinical response was obtained in 93.1% (27/29) evaluable patients receiving roxithromycin and 88.8% (24/27) receiving co-amoxiclav. Tolerability was significantly better in the roxithromycin group, with 1/29 (3.4%) patients in this group experiencing gastrointestinal side-effects, compared with 7/27 (25.9%) patients in the co-amoxiclav group (P < 0.05). Although the study had limited power to detect differences, roxithromycin demonstrated clinical, bacteriological and overall efficacy similar to that of co-amoxiclav, but with better tolerability. Roxithromycin thus appears to be an effective and well-tolerated drug for the treatment of acute and recurrent sinusitis.
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A total of 2400 patients with pyrexia of unknown origin and or suspected leptospirosis were included in this study. Dark field microscopy detected Leptospira in 690 cases, Leptospira serological Investigations proved positive in 570 out of these 690 patients. Among them 212 had the classical icteric and the other 358 had anicteric type of presentation. Notably eptospira interrogans serovar ictero haemorrhagiae infection was encountered in 212 patients. In 30 patients, who had multi organ dysfunction which included renal failure, hepatic dysfunction or meningitis was due to Leptospira interrogans Serovar cannicola. Coexsistense of leptospirosis and hepatitis B virus infection were noted in 15 patients. Antibody to Leptospira interrogans was demonstrated by Micro agglutination test (MAT) in addition to dark field microscopy positivity in these cases. Similarly HIV antibody was demonstrated in 30 of the 330 anicteric patients. 554 out of 570 cases responded to intra venous penicillin (216), and oral Doxycycline (182) and Augmentin (156), and the remaining 16 patients succumbed to death.
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The MRSA status of patients during 777 in-patient episodes was prospectively recorded during three time spans; period 1 (November 2002-April 2003) before the change in isolation and antibiotic policy and, periods 2 (August-December 2003) and 3 (October 2004-January 2005) after the change in policy.
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Twenty-five patients were identified. The median length of treatment was 15.8 (range 3-62) months. Ten (40%) patients had pouchitis with co-existing prepouch ileitis. The median frequency of defecation was 7 (range 4-11)/24 h, the median clinical Pouch Disease Activity Index (PDAI) was 0 (range 0-1) and the CQGOL score was 0.7 (range 0.5-1.0). Of those who relapsed, three (50%) patients had achieved mucosal healing following the induction of remission. Failure of mucosal healing did not predict a reduced time to relapse (P = 0.18). Prepouch ileitis was associated with an increased risk of developing antibiotic resistance (P = 0.023). Treatment of this with alternating antibiotic combination therapy was successful in all cases.
BB-81384, a novel PDF inhibitor with good activity against S. pneumoniae in vitro, was the first compound of this class to be profiled for oral pharmacokinetics and tissue disposition and to demonstrate oral anti-pneumococcal efficacy in mice.