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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy with the adjunct of a selected antibiotic in subjects with refractory periodontitis. 10 subjects were selected for the study; all had a history of periodontal surgery, tetracycline therapy, and regular maintenance by a periodontist. Clinical registrations including gingival index, plaque index, presence of bleeding and suppuration, pocket depth, and duplicate measurements of attachment level were performed at baseline and at monthly intervals. When disease activity was detected based on the tolerance method, a bacterial sample was taken from the active site and its susceptibilities to a number of antibiotics were determined. For the selected 10 subjects, Augmentin was the antibiotic of choice. Each subject received 750 mg/day for 2 weeks, during which time a full-month scaling and root planing was performed under local anesthesia. Clinical re-evaluation was performed after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. At the time disease activity was detected, the average loss of attachment at all active sites was 2.2 mm, and the increase in pocket depth 1.5 mm. At 3 months post-therapy, these sites had regained 2 mm of attachment which remained stable through the 12-month examination. Pocket depths decreased 2.5 mm over the first 6 months and then stabilized. The frequency of all sites that gained 1 mm or more of attachment increased by approximately 10% over the first 9 months following therapy. The frequency of all sites that decreased 1 mm or more in pocket depth increased approximately 15% over the same period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise convened subject matter experts at the 2010 HHS Burkholderia Workshop to develop consensus recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis against and treatment for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei infections, which cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Drugs recommended by consensus of the participants are ceftazidime or meropenem for initial intensive therapy, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for eradication therapy. For postexposure prophylaxis, recommended drugs are trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or co-amoxiclav. To improve the timely diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, further development and wide distribution of rapid diagnostic assays were also recommended. Standardized animal models and B. pseudomallei strains are needed for further development of therapeutic options. Training for laboratory technicians and physicians would facilitate better diagnosis and treatment options.
Two hundred and sixty-eight documented positive cultures were observed in 190 cirrhotic patients (median age 61.5 years, 58.5% Child score C). Of these, 57 were classified as confirmed SBP and 140 as confirmed bacterascites. The predominant flora was Gram-positive cocci, whatever the situation (SBP, bacterascites, nosocomial/health-care related or not). Enteroccocci (27.7% E. faecium) were isolated in 24% of the episodes, and in 48% from patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis. E. coli were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate and to third-generation cephalosporins in 62.5% and 89.5% of cases, respectively. No single antibiotic allowed antimicrobial coverage of more than 60%. Only combinations such as amoxicillin + third-generation cephalosporin or cotrimoxazole allowed coverage close to 75-80% in non-nosocomial episodes. Combinations based on broader spectrum antibiotics should be considered for empirical therapy of nosocomial infections.
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Fifty-three of 60 dogs completed the study. No significant difference between treatment groups concerning mortality rate, dropout rate, duration of hospitalization, or severity of clinical signs, either on any individual day or over the course of disease, was observed.
There were a total of 28 patients during the review period. Twenty-five organisms were isolated from 21 patients, of which Streptococcus viridans formed 44% of the isolates (11 of the 25). The typical triad of bacteria only formed 20% of the isolates (5 of the 25), and none of these bacteria were found in the group with intracranial complications. Infection site cultures had a superior yield compared to blood cultures (p < .001). Ninety-six percent of the bacteria were sensitive to a combination of amoxicillin-clavulanate and cloxacillin.
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We describe an elderly patient with normal pre-existing liver functions who was treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and later ciprofloxacin for acute bronchitis. He developed a pattern of liver dysfunction consistent with hepatocellular injury, with clinical features of a hypersensitivity reaction, which may be attributable to either or both of the antimicrobial agents used. This gradually resolved over a 4-week time period, with conservative management. A review of the relevant literature on drug-induced hepatotoxicity is also presented.