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Rabeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor with antisecretory properties. In vitro animal experiments have indicated that the inhibition of the proton pump by rabeprazole is partially reversible. Rabeprazole has 2- to 10-fold greater antisecretory activity than omeprazole in vitro. However, it dissociates more readily from H+,K(+)-ATPase than omeprazole, resulting in a shorter duration of action. In comparative clinical trials rabeprazole was significantly more effective than placebo, famotidine or ranitidine and as effective as omeprazole in the treatment of patients with erosive or ulcerative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or gastric or duodenal ulcers. Healing rates with rabeprazole were independent of Helicobacter pylori status. Rabeprazole in combination with either clarithromycin and metronidazole or clarithromycin and amoxicillin or amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin for 7 days produced eradication of H. pylori in 100, 95, 90 and 63% of patients. The tolerability profile of rabeprazole 20mg once daily was similar to that of famotidine 20mg twice daily, ranitidine 150mg 4 times daily or omeprazole 20mg once daily in comparative trials. The adverse events reported with once daily administration of rabeprazole 20mg include malaise, nausea, diarrhoea, headache, dizziness and skin eruptions in 0.7 to 2.2% of patients.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistance to antibiotics has become a global problem and is an important factor in determining the outcome of treatment of infected patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in gastrointestinal disorders patients.
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LB cultures [4 x 10(8)-4 x 10(9) CFU ml(-1)) either were prepared in milk at their native pH, 3.8-5.0, or were adjusted to pH 6.4-7.7. At low and neutralized pH, LB strains inhibited the growth by 40-86.7% and 16.7-66.7% of H. pylori strains, respectively. LB activity was strain-dependent. At low and neutralized pH, one and five H. pylori strains, respectively, were not inhibited by any LB strain. LB2 and LB3, taken together, were active against most metronidazole and clarithromycin resistant strains.
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Patients with dyspepsia and positive for H pylori infection, with a mucosal biopsy showing chronic active gastritis, were randomised to receive H pylori eradication therapy (group 1, n = 41) or no treatment (group 2, n = 40), and were followed up prospectively. Gastric mucosae were taken for methylation assay at week 0 (before treatment) and week 6 (after treatment). Archived specimens of intestinal metaplasia with H pylori infection (n = 22) and without (n = 19) were retrieved for methylation analysis. Methylation was assessed using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.
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Oral colchicine has unique anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects with broad ramifications for rheumatic and nonrheumatic disease applications. Significant advances in the last decade have increased understanding of predictors of both colchicine efficacy and toxicity.
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The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonizes in over half of the world's population. H. pylori that establishes life-long infection in the stomach is definitely associated with gastro-duodenal diseases and a wide variety of non-gastrointestinal tract conditions such as immune thrombocytopenia. Triple therapy which consists of a proton pump inhibitor and combinations of two antibiotics (amoxicillin, clarithromycin or amoxicillin, metronidazol) is commonly used for H. pylori eradication. Recently, the occurrence of drug-resistant H. pylori and the adverse effect of antibiotics have severely weakened eradication therapy. Generally antibiotics induce the disturbance of human gastrointestinal microflora. Furthermore, there are inappropriate cases of triple therapy such as allergy to antibiotics, severe complications (liver and/or kidney dysfunction), the aged and people who reject the triple therapy. These prompt us to seek alterative agents instead of antibiotics and to develop more effective and safe therapy with these agents. The combination of these agents actually may result in lower a dose of antibiotics. There are many reports world-wide that non-antibiotic substances from natural products potentially have an anti-H. pylori agent. We briefly review the constituents derived from nature that fight against H. pylori in the literature with our studies.
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The macrolide class of antibiotics is well established and often recommended for use in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infection (RTI). The newer agents clarithromycin and azithromycin are frequently prescribed as first- or second-line therapy, and have been considered as superior to erythromycin in microbiological activity and clinical efficacy. In-vitro data show that clarithromycin and azithromycin have good activity (MIC < or = 0.5 microg/ml) against certain RTI pathogens. However the activity of both compounds is intrinsically low against Haemophilus influenzae whilst several other important RTI pathogens - notably Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes - exhibit a high prevalence of resistance to them. In many countries, the prevalence of resistance to clarithromycin and azithromycin is still rising with cross resistance with erythromycin. Maximum serum concentrations of clarithromycin and azithromycin are lower than the MIC90s for these agents against H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae. Concentrations in tissues have been reported to be much higher than those in serum. However, the high concentrations observed in tissues are largely a reflection of high concentrations inside cells. Concentrations of clarithromycin and azithromycin in extracellular tissue fluids, where Haemophilus and streptococci are located, are in equilibrium with concentrations in the serum, and remain low. It has been suggested that phagocytes deliver azithromycin to infection sites in a targeted fashion, but the evidence in support of this hypothesis is weak. Recent clinical experience with clarithromycin and azithromycin is consistent with preclinical results, and suggests that these agents have limited efficacy against certain respiratory infections. Clarithromycin and azithromycin are the first choice treatment of atypical infections caused by intracellular pathogens. For community-acquired RTIs, where H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae are present, they may no longer be an appropriate choice for first-line therapy. Indeed, in areas where levels of drug resistant S. pneumoniae are high, their use may be questionable as second-line therapy.
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Our present study shows frequent association of NTM with laparoscopic port-site nonhealing chronic infection or wound dehiscence. Although direct microscopy can give us a clue to diagnosis, culture isolation is required for speciation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, which helps formulate therapeutic regimen.
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Preliminary experiments were performed to find a broth medium able to support the growth of H pylori in 20 h and a reliable detection method to quickly detect the amount of H pylori grown in the media. A mixture of different components was the best broth medium; ELISA was chosen as the detection technique. Performance of the new RST was compared to a gold standard (break point agar dilution method). 200 consecutive patients were tested for H pylori infection and chemosusceptibility to CH and MZ by the gold standard and RST.
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In our study, H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin associated with point mutation at position 2243 (T2243C).