The objective of this longitudinal study was to investigate the occurrence and genetic background of faecal Escherichia coli resistant to cefotaxime (CTX) in horses receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis after admission to a veterinary teaching hospital. The ten horses enrolled in the study were treated with cefquinome either alone (n=4) or in combination with metronidazole (n=3) or other antimicrobial agents (n=3). CTX-resistant coliforms in faeces collected before, during and after treatment were quantified on selective MacConkey agar supplemented with CTX, and a colony isolated randomly from each positive sample was characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and by PCR detection and sequencing of bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M) and bla(CMY). All horses were negative for CTX-resistant coliforms at admission but became positive within the first three days of treatment. The average faecal densities of CTX-resistant coliforms increased significantly following antimicrobial prophylaxis (P<0.001). Genetic characterization of 29 faecal isolates revealed that this effect was due to proliferation of E. coli producing either CTX-M-1 (n=28) or CTX-M-14 (n=1). Five CTX-M-1 isolates produced additional β-lactamases (TEM-1, CMY-34 and the novel variant CMY-53). Shedding of CTX-M-producing E. coli appeared intermittent in four horses and persisted two weeks after antimicrobial treatments in five of six patients tested after discharge from hospital. Nosocomial transmission was suggested by finding five identical CTX-M-1-producing E. coli pulsotypes in multiple horses. The originality of the study lies in the unanticipated high frequency and genetic diversity of CTX-M-producing E. coli observed in the faecal flora of hospitalized patients receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis.
flagystatin and alcohol
The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of clarithromycin and metronidazole using an agar dilution method to compare two different incubation atmospheres: a CO2 incubator and a jar with a microaerobic gas-generating system. Antibiotics were placed on plates in twofold dilutions ranging from 128 to 0.064 mg/l in Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 7% horse blood. The inoculum was prepared from 31 Helicobacter pylori isolates and was inoculated using a Steers replicator. Plates were incubated for 3 to 5 days and MICs were recorded as the lowest concentration of antibiotic inhibiting visible growth. Two different incubation atmospheres were used: a CO2 incubator set at 95% humidity and 10% CO2, and a jar with a gas-generating envelope that produces 7-10% O2 and 14% CO2 (BioMerieux). Clarithromycin resistance was found in 19% of strains both in the gas-generating system and the CO2 incubator. Metronidazole resistance was 23% in both atmospheres. MICs for clarithromycin in both atmospheres showed two dilutions of difference for 100% of the strains, and were slightly higher in the jar with a gas-generating envelope. However, MICs for metronidazole were higher when it was incubated in the CO2 incubator, and in 86.7% of strains the MICs showed < or = 2 dilutions of difference. No great discrepancies were found for either metronidazole or clarithromycin using the two methods.
flagystatin vag ovules and alcohol
Three patients with chronic urticaria or pruritus were found to suffer from an asymptomatic intestinal infection caused by the protozoan Giardia lamblia. Treatment with metronidazole per os or tinidazole per os was successful; the pruritic symptoms in one patient improved markedly.Giardia lamblia (Giardia intestinalis) are enteroparasites and produce gastrointestinal symptoms such as acute and chronic diarrhea. Cutaneous manifestations associated with giardiasis occur extremely rarely. Urticaria and itching may be explained as an infection-associated allergy. Hitherto, the following cutaneous signs have been described: urticaria, angioedema, mouth ulcers, pruritus, atopic dermatitis, and anal eczema.We considered that the cutaneous manifestations described here, i. e., urticaria and itching, were secondary to the associated gastrointestinal infection due to Giardia lamblia cysts and trophozoite forms, as they disappeared under specific treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole.
To assess the frequency and causative role of Giardia lamblia infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain in our setup.
While a predictive association between urinary I-FABP and metronidazole systemic exposure was not observed, the data suggest the potential of this endogenous biomarker to serve as a pharmacodynamic surrogate for antimicrobial treatment of serious abdominal infections in neonates and infants.
flagystatin suppository and alcohol
Surgical drainage combined with early antibiotic treatment is an effective method in the management of retropharyngeal abscesses and in preventing complications.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to August 2015 at 313 patients of all ages. B. hominis detection was performed on serial fecal samples by direct microscopic examination and microculture in modified Locke solution. The in vitro susceptibility testing against the drug metronidazole, nitazoxanide, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin was performed in 24 strains of B. hominis, which grew up (microculture method) in 10 double concentrations of each antimicrobial (from 256 ug/ml to 0.5 ug/mL) plus a control.
flagystatin cream reviews
Patients suffering from dyspeptic problems and duodenal ulcer but positive H. pylori status (proved with CLO test) have been examined. Patients have been treated during the first seven days with triple therapy (omeprazol 2 x 20 mg, metronidazol 2 x 500 mg and amoksicilin 2 x 1000 mg). Subsequently, the patients were ordered omeprazole 20 mg in the one single morning dose in period of 21 days. Control endoscopy with the view of establishing the rate of healing ulcer and eradicating H. pylori was made four weeks after the beginning of the therapy.
flagystatin ovule 500 mg
A retrospective analysis of patients with CDI was performed.