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To test the susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae sinus isolates collected across the United States against commonly used antimicrobial agents.
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To prospectively quantitate the relationship between plasma levels of levofloxacin and successful clinical and/or microbiological outcomes and occurrence of adverse events in infected patients.
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A total of 212 A. baumannii strains of one isolate per patient were collected from Shanghai and Hong Kong from August 2002 to August 2003 that were tested against 15 commonly used antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method according to the NCCLS guidelines.
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Quinolones accumulate in eukaryotic cells and show activity against a large array of intracellular organisms, but systematic studies aimed at examining their pharmacodynamic profile against intracellular bacteria are scarce. The present work aims at comparing intracellular-to-extracellular activities in this context.
We investigated the susceptibility to antibacterial agents of 197 strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric patients at medical facilities in Gifu and Aichi prefectures between 2009 and 2010. Those strains were also examined for the mutations of ftsI coding for penicillin-binding protein 3, presence of bla TEM-1, serotype and beta-lactamase producing ability. Among the 197 strains, the most prevalent serotype was non-typeable (89.8%), followed by serotype b (8.1%), e (1.5%) and f (0.5%). Based on the susceptibility among the 197 strains to antibacterial agents, beta-lactamase nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible H. influenzae (BLNAS) accounted for 27.4%, beta-lactamase nonproducing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (BLNAR) for 62.4%, beta-lactamase producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (BLPAR) for 6.1% and beta-lactamase producing amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid-resistant H. influenzae (BLPACR) for 4.1%. According to PCR-based genotyping, the strains were classified into 6 categories: gBLNAS, gLow-BLNAR, gBLNAR, gBLPAR, gBLPACR-I and gBLPACR-II. The incidences of each resistant class were 17.3% for gBLNAS, 6.6% for gLow-BLNAR, 66.0% for gBLNAR, 5.6% for gBLPAR and 4.6% for gBLPACR-II. The combined incidence of gLow-BLNAR and gBLNAR was 72.6%, which was higher than that of BLNAR (62.4%). The MIC90s of antibacterial agents against the 197 strains were as follows; 0.0156 microg/mL for tosufloxacin and garenoxacin, 0.0313 microg/mL for levofloxacin and pazufloxacin, 0.0625 microg/mL for norfloxacin, 0.25 microg/mL for tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) and ceftriaxone, 0.5 microg/mL for TAZ/PIPC (1:8) and cefditoren, 1 microg/mL for piperacillin, cefteram, cefotaxime, meropenem, tebipenem and minocycline, 2 microg/mL for doripenem, 4 microg/mL for cefcapene, imipenem and azithromycin, 8 microg/mL for sulbactam/ampicillin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1:2, CVA/AMPC) and cefdinir, 16 microg/mL for CVA/AMPC (1:14), flomoxef and clarithromycin, 32 microg/mL for ampicillin. Although there was no rapid increase in the antibacterial resistance, the prevalence of BLNAR was still over 50%. In order to ensure the appropriate chemotherapy, it is important to continue the surveillance of susceptibility among H. influenzae.
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Intention-to-treat analysis revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in the respective eradication rates of the LOAD therapies (88.9% (80/90) LOAD-10, 90% (81/90) LOAD-7, 89.4% (161/180) for combined LOAD) compared with those receiving LAC, 73.3% (66/90). There were no differences in adverse effects between the groups.
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Patients were randomized to receive either levofloxacin 500 mg daily or placebo for 7 days and underwent sputum induction for a differential cell count and quantitative bacterial analysis at baseline and at days 7, 14, and 28.
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All cases (124 patients, 134 eyes) of microsporidial keratitis confirmed with modified trichrome stain positive of corneal scrape over a 4-year period.