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This study was performed on smear-positive patients of the west side of Iran, in the TB research center located in Kermanshah city, during 2014-15. Out of 1069 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 50 strains with pulmonary TB were selected and evaluated (22 men and 28 women; aged between 23 and 86; median age: 54.5years).
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The survey area covered three GLRA-supported operational NTLP zones, corresponding to 50% of the Ugandan population. A representative random sampling of individual patients was chosen as sampling procedure. Altogether 586 smear-positive TB patients (537 new cases and 49 previously treated cases) were included in the survey.
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Virtually all organisms evolved drug resistance independently. The types of drug resistance-associated mutations identified were very similar to changes occurring in isolates from other areas of the world. Nucleotide sequence-based strategies for rapid detection of drug resistance-conferring mutants will be applicable to organisms recovered in Peru, and potentially other areas of Latin America.
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The potential of genetic testing to rapidly diagnose drug resistance has lead to the development of new diagnostic assays. However, prior to implementation in a given setting, the association of specific mutations with specific drug resistance phenotypes should be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate molecular markers in predicting drug resistance in the Central Region of Cameroon.
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Different loci in six genes associated with drug resistance to isoniazid, rifampacin, streptomycin and ethambutol were selected to develop the PCR-based dot-blot hybridization strategy.
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The galactopyranosyl amino alcohols (3-16) were synthesised by regioselective oxirane ring opening of compound 2 with variety of amines and screened for antitubercular and antifungal activities. One of the compounds (16) showed potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv in vitro and also displayed activity in MDR TB. The compound (16) was found to be superior to ethambutol clinically used anti TB drug in in vitro screen.
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In spite of the recent introduction of two new drugs (delamanid and bedaquiline) and a few repurposed compounds to treat multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB), clinicians are facing increasing problems in designing effective regimens in severe cases. Recently a 9 to 12-month regimen (known as the 'Bangladesh regimen') proved to be effective in treating MDR-TB cases. It included an initial phase of 4 to 6 months of kanamycin, moxifloxacin, prothionamide, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, high-dose isoniazid, and ethambutol, followed by 5 months of moxifloxacin, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. However, recent evidence from Europe and Latin America identified prevalences of resistance to the first-line drugs in this regimen (ethambutol and pyrazinamide) exceeding 60%, and of prothionamide exceeding 50%. Furthermore, the proportions of resistance to the two most important pillars of the regimen - quinolones and kanamycin - were higher than 40%. Overall, only 14 out of 348 adult patients (4.0%) were susceptible to all of the drugs composing the regimen, and were therefore potentially suitable for the 'shorter regimen'. A shorter, cheaper, and well-tolerated MDR-TB regimen is likely to impact the number of patients treated and improve adherence if prescribed to the right patients through the systematic use of rapid MTBDRsl testing.
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One-year mortality was lower for patients receiving HAART (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.17, 95%CI 0.09-0.31) compared to no ART. HAART increased the risk of AE (aHR 2.08, 95%CI 1.29-3.36). The odds of AE when receiving a ritonavir + saquinavir HAART regimen was eight-fold higher compared to no ART (OR 8.31, 95%CI 3.04-22.69), while efavirenz-based HAART was not associated with a significantly increased risk of AE (OR 1.42, 95%CI 0.76-2.65).
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Miliary TB tends to occur among HIV infected patients with severe immunosuppression. Though the initial response to short-course chemotherapy was encouraging, a high recurrence rate and mortality was observed indicating poor prognosis in HIV.