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Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacteria isolated in ocular samples.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae isolated from patients of a teaching hospital in Thailand. Eighty-eight isolates of H. influenzae were collected between September 2005 and March 2008. All isolates were identified and characterized for biotypes and capsular types. The β-lactamase production of these isolates was examined, and their susceptibility to the following 12 antimicrobial agents was determined: ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC), cefotaxime (CTX), cefuroxime (CXM), meropenem (MEM), clarithromycin (CLR), telithromycin (TEL), tetracycline (TET), ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LEV), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (CHL). Of the 88 H. influenzae isolates, 69 (78.4%), 13 (14.8%), 4 (4.5%), and 2 (2.3%) were from the respiratory tract, pus, the genital tract, and blood, respectively. Half of the isolates were biotype II (44 isolates, 50%). The other half comprised biotypes I (23 isolates, 26.1%), III (15 isolates, 17.1%), and IV (6 isolates, 6.8%). All isolates were capsular non-typeable, except for 2 isolates that were type f. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed that all isolates were susceptible to AMC, CTX, MEM, TEL, CIP, and LEV (100%), whereas 96.6%, 94.3%, 80.7%, 68.2%, 50.0%, and 44.3% were susceptible to CXM, CLR, CHL, TET, AMP, and SXT, respectively. The β-lactamase-production rate of H. influenzae isolates was 40.9%, and the prevalence of BLNAR was 18.2%.
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A cross-sectional study of mid-stream urine collected from 339 symptomatic patients over a three-month period at Gulu regional referral hospital. Qualitative culture and identification of bacteria and antibiotic sensitivity testing using the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was done. Participants' demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a standard form. Results were analyzed by simple proportions among related variables and confidence intervals computed using binomial exact distribution.
RMB eradicated the bacterium in 21 patients. Two subjects dropped out. The eradication rate was 77.7% (CI 62.0-93.4%) at intention-to-treat and 84.0% (CI 69.6-98.4%) at per-protocol analysis. MTB was successful in 14 patients (51.9%, CI 33.1-70.7%). No patient withdrew from the treatment for adverse events. Drug-related side effects were reported only in 3 subjects, but in all cases the treatment was carried on.
Resistance of P. aeruginosa to penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides varies between hospitals, but is increasing.
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A parallel microdevice has been developed for high throughput analysis using microfluidics. The detection method is based on a chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the oxidation of tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) Ru(ll) [Ru (bipy)3(2+)] by peroxydisulfate. The device consists of a photoreactor chip and two detection chips. The sample throughput can reach up to 720 runs/h with the total reagent consumption of only 2.4 mL. The parallel microdevice was evaluated using levofloxacin (LEVO) in pharmaceutical preparations. The various factors that affect the CL signal were optimized, and the LOD was found to be 30 and 27 microg/L for the two detectors, respectively (S/N = 3), while RSD was 1.1% (n = 15) for 1.0 mg/L LEVO. Two tablet samples that contain LEVO as an active ingredient were successfully analyzed using the proposed parallel microdevice.