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We report on a 3-year-old Melanesian girl admitted for acute renal failure following subfulminant hepatitis A virus infection. While the child was slowly recovering from severe cytolytic hepatitis, she presented 8 weeks of protracted fever and major eosinophilia (30,000/microl); thereafter, acute renal failure (serum creatinine 295 micromol/l) occurred. Renal histology displayed diffuse eosinophilic infiltrate, with severe acute tubulointerstitial lesions associated with mild glomerular endocapillary proliferation and eosinophilic infiltrate, suggesting an immunoallergic mechanism. The child had received cefixime and cotrimoxazole 3 weeks prior to hospitalisation for the hepatitis A virus infection. The final diagnosis was of the syndrome drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or DRESS, induced by cefixime or cotrimoxazole and possibly triggered by the hepatitis A virus infection.
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A prospective randomized, double-blind, controlled study of cefoperazone/sulbactam (cefoperazone 25 mg/kg/day) + co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim 8 mg/kg/day) vs ceftazidime (100 mg/kg/day) + co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim 8 mg/kg/day) in the treatment of severe melioidosis was conducted at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, from July 1995 to September 1996. A total of 84 patients were enrolled in the study. Forty of them (48%) had culture-proven melioidosis and were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups, each group with 20 patients. Two cases (one in each treatment group) were excluded from the final analysis due to incomplete data. There was no significant difference in the mortality rate between the two groups-16 per cent (3/19) in the cefoperazone/sulbactam group vs 21 per cent (4/19) in the ceftazidime group (p > 0.05). Bacteriological responses of successfully treated patients were similar in both groups, and both treatment regimens were well tolerated. Cefoperazone/sulbactam + co-trimoxazole can therefore be used as an alternative treatment for severe melioidosis. However, to further support this conclusion, a study with a larger patient population is needed.
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The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, SCCmec types, presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, and susceptibility to antibiotics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from hospitalized children.
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Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice.
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This review aimed to evaluate whether antibiotic prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic patients reduced mortality when compared to placebo or no intervention.
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The oviductal and plasma levels of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) were studied in 9 women after oral and i.v. administration of a drug combination (Eusaprim R, Wellcome Foundation Ltd). The concentration of TMP in a healthy endosalpinx was found to be twice as high (4.7 microgram/g, range 2.8-8.3) as in plasma (2.6 microgram/ml, range 2.1-3.6). Conversely, the endosalpingeal level of SMZ (38 microgram/g, range 12-65) was about half that in plasma (77 microgram/ml, range 58-95). The agar well diffusion method was used for the concentration determinations. The specimens were collected during surgery for non-infectious genital diseases. The implication of treatment by the given drugs is discussed.