In vitro antimicrobic susceptibility patterns of commonly isolated aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial pathogens of equine origin were determined, using the agar-plate dilution method. All organisms were recent clinical isolates and included Corynebacterium (Rhodococcus) equi, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, (coagulase positive) Staphylococcus sp, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Actinobacillus sp, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella. In vitro susceptibility levels were outlined for 14 antimicrobics as follows: amikacin less than or equal to 4.0 micrograms/ml, ampicillin less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml, amoxicillin less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml, cefadroxil less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml, chloramphenicol less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml, erythromycin less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml, gentamicin less than or equal to 2.0 micrograms/ml, kanamycin less than or equal to 4.0 micrograms/ml, penicillin less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml, tetracycline less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml, sulfadimethoxine less than or equal to 10.0 micrograms/ml, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine less than or equal to 0.5/9.5 micrograms/ml, sulfadiazine less than or equal to 10.0 micrograms/ml, and trimethoprim/sulfadiazine less than or equal to 0.5/9.5 micrograms/ml.
duricef 250 mg suspension
Absorption of cefadroxil in a selective intestinal absorption area (the proximal third of the small intestine) of the anaesthetized rat, at seven initial perfusion concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 mg mL-1, is shown to be a non-linear transport mechanism. With the aid of computer-fitting procedures based on differential and integrated forms of Michaelis-Menten equation, Vm and Km values of 36.7-37.3 mg h-1 and 12.0-13.0 mg, respectively, were found. The statistical parameters were better than those obtained both for first-order and for combined Michaelis-Menten and first-order kinetics. There is no evidence for substantial passive diffusion processes. The results reported here, together with allometric considerations and literature data analysis, may help to explain some particular non-linear features of plasma level curves associated with the administration of fairly high oral doses of cefadroxil to humans.
duricef uti dosage
Cefetamet pivoxil, an oral third generation cephalosporin, was evaluated in 218 hospitalized patients with complicated urinary tract infections. Among these patients, 28 (13.1%) were suffering from concomitant diabetes: 25 of these patients were matched with 25 non-diabetic patients and for each pair, the age +/- 2 years, sex, complicating factors, etc. had to be identical. All patients received 2000 mg cefetamet pivoxil daily for 10 days. The predominant pathogen was E. coli; 18 in the diabetic group, 15 among non-diabetics. Comparison of the therapeutic results showed that the bacteriological eradication rate was similar in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, 92% and 87.5%, respectively. There was a similar improvement in pyuria, and therapeutic response was equal in diabetic patients as in non-diabetic patients. No unwanted effects on renal function were observed in the high-risk diabetic group.
duricef dosage cellulitis
This meta-analysis indicates that the likelihood of bacteriologic and clinical failure of GABHS tonsillopharyngitis is significantly less if an oral cephalosporin is prescribed, compared with oral penicillin.
duricef safe while breastfeeding
The ecological effects on the commensal microflora in saliva and stool samples were studied during administration of two commonly used antibiotics: cefadroxil 500 mg b.i.d. for 10 days and phenoxymethylpenicillin 1 g b.i.d. for 10 days. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the study. In the oropharyngeal microflora the aerobic microflora was significantly suppressed during administration of cefadroxil while no significant changes were noticed in the anaerobic microflora. Administration of phenoxymethylpenicillin caused a strong decrease in the number of viridans streptococci and an overgrowth of Neisseria cocci. The total numbers of anaerobic oropharyngeal microorganisms were suppressed during phenoxymethylpenicillin administration. In the intestinal microflora the variation in numbers of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms was minor in both groups. The microflora became normalised 2 weeks after withdrawal of the drugs. It was concluded that peroral administration of cefadroxil to healthy volunteers resulted in minor ecological disturbances in the oropharyngeal and intestinal microflora, which were in the same range as for phenoxymethylpenicillin.
The asymmetric membrane capsule (AMC) is a unique drug delivery system that looks like a conventional hard gelatin capsule but has significant advantages over it. In the present study, a system was made that had an outer disintegrating hard gelatin capsule and an inner nondisintegrating polymeric capsular system for delivering a model drug cefadroxil. The inner nondisintegrating polymeric capsular system was the AMC, which was prepared by precipitation of the asymmetric membrane (AM) on the walls of conventional hard gelatin capsules in fabricated glass holders via a dry phase inversion process. The effect of different formulation variables that might affect the drug release were studied based on a 2(3) factorial design. The formulation variables were level of osmogen, ethylcellulose, and pore former. The effect of varying osmotic pressure and agitation intensity on drug release was also studied. Scanning electron microscopy showed an outer, dense, nonporous region and an inner, lighter, porous region for the prepared AM inside, and a gelatin layer outside. Statistical testing was applied for in vitro drug release. Results showed the drug release to be independent of the agitation intensity but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the dissolution media. The release kinetics followed the Higuchi model, and the mechanism of release was Fickian diffusion.
will duricef treat sinus infection
PEPT1 and PEPT2 are H(+)-coupled peptide transporters expressed preferentially in the intestine and kidney, respectively, which mediate uphill transport of oligopeptides and peptide-like drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics. In the present study, we have compared the recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by LLC-PK1 cells stably transfected with PEPT1 or PEPT2 cDNA. Cyclacillin (aminopenicillin) and ceftibuten (anionic cephalosporin without an alpha-amino group) showed potent inhibitory effects on the glycylsarcosine uptake in the PEPT1-expressing cells. Other beta-lactams, such as cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cephradine (aminocephalosporins), inhibited modestly the PEPT1-mediated glycylsarcosine uptake. Except for ceftibuten, these beta-lactams showed much more potent inhibitions on the glycylsarcosine uptake via PEPT2 than via PEPT1. Comparison of the inhibition constant (Ki) values between cefadroxil and cephalexin suggested that the hydroxyl group at the NH2-terminal phenyl ring increased affinity for both PEPT1 and PEPT2. It is concluded that PEPT2 has a much higher affinity for beta-lactam antibiotics having an alpha-amino group than PEPT1 and that substituents at the NH2-terminal side chain of these drugs are involved in the recognition by both peptide transporters.
duricef antibiotic dosage
Concurrently with administering a newly developed cephem derivative antibiotic (CEP), cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR, CS-807) dry syrup, to children with skin and soft tissue infections, activities of 7 drugs against a group of microorganisms were tested. The drugs tested included 4 drugs of the cephem group, R-3746, a Na-salt form of CPDX, cefaclor (CCL), cephalexin (CEX) and cefadroxil (CDX), and 3 drugs of the penicillin group, ampicillin (ABPC), methicillin (DMPPC) and cloxacillin (MCIPC). The bacterial strains tested were 71 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, all isolated from the above cases of pediatric infections. Inoculum sizes used in these tests were 10(6) and 10(8) cfu/ml. Ages of children in those cases to which the drug was administered ranged from 2 months to 15 years. A total of 66 cases were treated, including 60 cases of impetigo, 5 cases of subcutaneous abscess and 1 case of phlegmon. The drug was administered for an average of 6 days with a daily average dose level of 9.4 mg/kg divided into 3 doses except 1 case where a twice daily dose regimen was used. Clinical and bacteriological effects were examined, and the occurrence of adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory test results were recorded. The results of these tests are summarized below. 1. The activity test for R-3746 (Na-salt of CPDX) against 71 strains of S. aureus performed at an inoculum level of 10(8) cfu/ml showed 2 peaks of MIC values, one in a range of 1.56 to 6.25 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 100 micrograms/ml. The most prevalent MIC value was 3.13 micrograms/ml with MIC against 51 strains or 71.8% of the strains tested showing this value, and MIC values of 25 micrograms/ml or higher were obtained for 13 strains or 18.3% of the strains tested. The MIC80 was 6.25 micrograms/ml. Thus, R-3746 showed an antibacterial activity slightly weaker than MCIPC and DMPPC but similar to CCL, CEX and CDX. MIC values obtained at an inoculum level of 10(6) cfu/ml also had 2 peaks, one in a range of 1.56 to 3.13 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 25 micrograms/ml. Strains against which R-3746 had the MIC value of 3.13 micrograms/ml were the most numerous with 47 strains or 66.2%, and strains against which the MIC value of higher than 25 micrograms/ml was obtained were next with 13 strains or 18.3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)