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Moxifloxacin-based triple therapies showed higher eradication rates with few side effects and good drug compliance when compared with standard H. pylori treatments. Moreover, the increased prevalence of clarithromycin resistance suggests that moxifloxacin-based regimens could be safe and effective options in treatment of H. pylori infection.
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We report the first case of anaphylaxis to oral vancomycin in a cystic fibrosis patient with severe and relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) refractory to metronidazole. The patient's colitis has been successfully treated with a combination of intravenous metronidazole and tigecycline.
We found that a high proportion (21%) of cases of lung abscess were due to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, which differs from the findings of previous studies. Lung abscess due to K. pneumoniae was associated with underlying diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-18.4; P = .039) and negatively correlated with a time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of >30 days (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7; P = .008). A higher percentage of patients with K. pneumoniae lung abscess had concomitant bacteremia (OR, 9.4; 95% CI, 1.1-81.9; P = .032), delayed defervesence (OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 1.8-47.8; P = .004), and multiple cavities noted on radiographs (OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 1.3-94.9; P = .015), compared with patients with anaerobic bacterial lung abscess. The rate of nonsusceptibility to clindamycin and penicillin among anaerobes and Streptococcus milleri group isolates increased.
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Using a retrospective cohort design, demographic characteristics, Minimum Data Set (MDS 2.0) assessments (years 2007-2010), and pharmacy records of residents were analyzed. Residents were required to have a CDI diagnosis, ≥1 MDS 2.0 assessment ≤120 days pre- and post-index event, and receipt of metronidazole (MET) or vancomycin (VAN) within ±7 days of index date. Baseline characteristics were compared between cases and controls matched 1:3 on age, gender, and index year. Cox regression (CR) analysis evaluated the relationship between CDI status, and post-index mortality and hospitalization.
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Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole carbamate compound currently in use for human medical practice against enterobiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH); However, its spectrum of activity is broad and goes beyond these infections.
Clostridium difficile isolates (n=149) collected in south-east Scotland between August and October 2005 were typed by four different methods and their susceptibility to seven different antibiotics was determined. The aims were to define the types of strain occurring in this region and to determine whether there were any clonal relationships among them with respect to genotype and antibiotic resistance pattern. Ribotyping revealed that 001 was the most common type (n=113, 75.8 %), followed by ribotype 106 (12 isolates, 8.1 %). The majority of the isolates (96.6 %, n=144) were of toxinotype 0, with two toxinotype V isolates and single isolates of toxinotypes I, IV and XIII. PCR and restriction analysis of the fliC gene from 147 isolates gave two restriction patterns: 145 of pattern VII and two of pattern I. Binary toxin genes were detected in only three isolates: two isolates of ribotype 126, toxinotype V, and one isolate of ribotype 023, toxinotype IV. S-types showed more variation, with 64.5 % (n=40) of the common S-type (4,939) and 21 % (n=13) of S-type 4,741, with six other S-types (one to three isolates each). All ribotype 001 isolates were of the same S-type (4,939), with three isolates of other ribotypes being this S-type. No resistance was found to metronidazole or vancomycin, with resistance to tetracycline only found in 4.3 % of the isolates. A high proportion of isolates were resistant to clindamycin (62.9 %), moxifloxacin, ceftriaxone (both 87.1 %) and erythromycin (94.8 %). Resistance to three antibiotics (erythromycin, clindamycin and ceftriaxone) was seen in 66 isolates, with erythromycin, ceftriaxone and moxifloxacin resistance seen in 96 isolates. Resistance to all four of these antibiotics was found in 62 isolates and resistance to five (the above plus tetracycline) in one isolate: a ribotype 001, toxinotype 0 strain. Whilst ribotype 001 was the most commonly encountered type, there was no evidence of clonal relationships when all other typing and antibiotic resistance patterns were taken into account.