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We included 20 trials with 3791 participants. Studies were heterogenous in study design, population, antibiotic regimens, and outcomes. We grouped the sixteen different antibiotic agents studied into six categories: 1) anti-pseudomonal penicillins (three trials); 2) broad-spectrum penicillins (one trial); 3) cephalosporins (two trials); 4) carbapenems (four trials); 5) fluoroquinolones (six trials); 6) other antibiotics (four trials).Only 9 of the 20 trials protected against detection bias with blinded outcome assessment. Only one-third of the trials provided enough information to enable a judgement about whether the randomisation sequence was adequately concealed. Eighteen out of 20 trials received funding from pharmaceutical industry-sponsors.The included studies reported the following findings for clinical resolution of infection: there is evidence from one large trial at low risk of bias that patients receiving ertapenem with or without vancomycin are more likely to have resolution of their foot infection than those receiving tigecycline (RR 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 0.99; 955 participants). It is unclear if there is a difference in rates of clinical resolution of infection between: 1) two alternative anti-pseudomonal penicillins (one trial); 2) an anti-pseudomonal penicillin and a broad-spectrum penicillin (one trial) or a carbapenem (one trial); 3) a broad-spectrum penicillin and a second-generation cephalosporin (one trial); 4) cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics (two trials); 5) carbapenems and anti-pseudomonal penicillins or broad-spectrum penicillins (four trials); 6) fluoroquinolones and anti-pseudomonal penicillins (four trials) or broad-spectrum penicillins (two trials); 7) daptomycin and vancomycin (one trial); 8) linezolid and a combination of aminopenicillins and beta-lactamase inhibitors (one trial); and 9) clindamycin and cephalexin (one trial).Carbapenems combined with anti-pseudomonal agents produced fewer adverse effects than anti-pseudomonal penicillins (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.84; 1 trial). An additional trial did not find significant differences in the rate of adverse events between a carbapenem alone and an anti-pseudomonal penicillin, but the rate of diarrhoea was lower for participants treated with a carbapenem (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.93; 1 trial). Daptomycin produced fewer adverse effects than vancomycin or other semi-synthetic penicillins (RR 0.61, 95%CI 0.39 to 0.94; 1 trial). Linezolid produced more adverse effects than ampicillin-sulbactam (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.49 to 4.73; 1 trial), as did tigecycline compared to ertapenem with or without vancomycin (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.60; 1 trial). There was no evidence of a difference in safety for the other comparisons.
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Bacteremia due to Fusobacterium spp. is unusual (<10% of cases of anaerobic bacteremia), and the isolation of Fusobacterium varium is especially uncommon. The most probable sources of Fusobacterium bacteremia are the respiratory, the gastrointestinal, and the genitourinary tracts. A.-M. Bourgault et al. (Clin. Infect. Dis. 25[Suppl. 2]:181-183) described 40 patients with Fusobacterium bacteremia; only 3 had Fusobacterium varium, and no one had decubitus scars as the portal of entry. In another published series (S. Henry, A. De Maria, and W. R. McCabe, Am. J. Med. 75:225-231, 1983) of 26 cases, two patients had concomitant pulmonary lesions and decubitus ulcers but there was no identification to the species level mentioned. We report a case of Fusobacterium varium bacteremia and infected sacral decubitus ulcer in an elderly patient.
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Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a growing concern in North America, because of their increasing incidence and severity. Using integrated approaches, we correlated pathogen genotypes and host clinical characteristics for 46 C. difficile infections in a tertiary care medical center during a 6-month interval from January to June 2010. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated 21 known and 2 novel sequence types (STs), suggesting that the institution's C. difficile strains are genetically diverse. ST-1 (which corresponds to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis strain type NAP1/ribotype 027) was the most prevalent (32.6%); 43.5% of the isolates were binary toxin gene positive, of which 75% were ST-1. All strains were ciprofloxacin resistant and metronidazole susceptible, and 8.3% and 13.0% of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin and tetracycline, respectively. The corresponding resistance loci, including potential novel mutations, were identified from the whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the resistant strains. Core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determining the phylogenetic relatedness of the 46 strains recapitulated MLST types and provided greater interstrain differentiation. The disease severity was greatest in patients infected with ST-1 and/or binary gene-positive strains, but genome-wide SNP analysis failed to provide additional associations with CDI severity within the same STs. We conclude that MLST and core genome SNP typing result in the same phylogenetic grouping of the 46 C. difficile strains collected in a single hospital. WGS also has the capacity to differentiate those strains within STs and allows the comparison of strains at the individual gene level and at the whole-genome level.
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Fifty-one isolates of Corynebacterium equi recovered from pigs and horses belonging to two capsular serotypes were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. No clear differences were detected in sensitivity between isolates of different sources or serotypes. All isolates were sensitive to less than 0.25 micrograms/ml of erythromycin and gentamicin. The following minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents were determined for greater than or equal to 90% of isolates: methicillin greater than 16 micrograms/ml, clindamycin 1-2 micrograms/ml, tobramycin less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml, cephalothin 8-64 micrograms/ml, kanamycin 2-8 micrograms/ml, amikacin less than or equal to 1-2 micrograms/ml, penicillin 2-greater than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml, ampicillin 2-8 micrograms/ml, trimethoprim-sulfa 4/76-32/608 micrograms/ml tetracycline 1-4 micrograms/ml and chloramphenicol 8-16 micrograms/ml.
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Median reductions in inflammatory lesions, noninflammatory, and total lesions (71.6%, 50.9% and 55.1%, respectively) were significantly greater with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/BPO 2.5% gel versus the individual active ingredients and vehicle. Treatment success (35.6% "clear/almost clear") and patient satisfaction (83.2%) were also significantly greater than vehicle at week 12. Cutaneous tolerability was excellent with all mean scores less than or equal to 0.2 at week 12 (where 1=mild).
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Novel fluoroquinolones and especially trovafloxacin and moxifloxacin appear to be of potential value for the treatment of acute otitis media caused by pneumococci resistant to traditional antibiotics.
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One hundred twenty-six women were enrolled, of whom 63 received daily gentamicin and 63 received 8-hour gentamicin. One patient was excluded from data analysis. Baseline maternal and obstetric characteristics were similar between groups except for longer mean duration of ruptured membranes in the 8-hour group (679+/-514 compared with 469+/-319 minutes; P =.03). Treatment success was equal between groups (94% daily gentamicin compared with 89% 8-hour gentamicin, P =.53). There were no differences in maternal or neonatal morbidities, including neonatal sepsis and newborn hearing screen.
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MRSA is a common pathogen in community-acquired lymphadenitis, and its incidence is rising. Resistance to clindamycin, a drug commonly used to treat MRSA, is prevalent amongst methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. This has important implications regarding the empiric treatment of lymphadenitis in children.