BRL 25000 granules, a formulation consisting of amoxicillin (AMPC) and clavulanic acid (CVA), was evaluated in the field of pediatrics. In a pharmacokinetic study, serum concentrations were determined in a patient after oral administration of BRL 25000 granules in the non-fasting state at a dose of 11.76 mg/kg. The serum levels of amoxicillin (AMPC) and clavulanic acid (CVA) 1 hour after administration were 7.76 micrograms/ml and 6.64 micrograms/ml, with biological half-lives of 0.86 hour and 0.88 hour respectively. The serum concentration profile at a dose of 31.58 mg/kg showed almost the same tendency as at 11.76 mg/kg, although the peak level and biological half-life of the serum concentrations were not obtained. These serum levels and their peak levels were considered reasonable compared with those obtained in adults at similar dose levels. In clinical studies, 34 patients were evaluated including 8 patients with acute pharyngitis or acute tonsillitis, 1 patient with acute bronchitis, 1 patient with bronchopneumonia, 23 patients with scarlet fever and 1 patient with pertussis. BRL 25000 granules were administered orally 3-4 times per day for 4-8 days to 2 patients at doses of 20 approximately less than 30 mg/kg/day, to 18 patients at doses of 30 approximately less than 40 mg/kg/day, to 11 patients at doses of 40 less than approximately 50 mg/kg/day, and to 3 patients at doses of 50-60 mg/kg/day. The clinical response was assessed excellent in 13 cases and good in 21 cases giving an overall clinical efficacy rate of 100% (34/34). The causative organisms were isolated in 17 cases and included 12 strains of Streptococcus group A, 2 S. pneumoniae, 3 H. influenzae and 1 H. parainfluenzae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Currently established first line therapy of acute (presumed bacterial) rhinosinusitis (ARS) consists of 10 to 14 days of oral amoxicillin or cephalosporins. This study compared the clinical efficacy and tolerance of cefcapene pivoxil (CP) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) in patients with ARS.
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Alopecic and aseptic nodule of the scalp (AANS) is a rare disease entity first reported in 1992 as pseudocyst of the scalp (PCS). Controversy exists regarding the histopathology and etiology of reported cases.
This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled trial, comparing amoxicillin-clavulanic acid administered for 7 days to a placebo. Patients included are those with documented or suspected COLD, exclusive of other bronchial or lung disease, and admitted for acute exacerbation, in the absence of overt sepsis or broncho-pneumonia, and having no other organ failure. Patients recently hospitalized, having received antibiotics for > 24 h, or on long-term steroids will not be included. Co-interventions (bronchodilators, steroids) are controlled for. Patients will be administered the antibiotic or placebo within 24 hours of admission.
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These results support the conclusion that 5 days of treatment with telithromycin is as safe and effective in patients with ABMS as a 10-day course of treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate or cefuroxime axetil.
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Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is of great concern to clinicians. Patient outcome after infection is mainly dependent on the sensitivity of the bacterium to the agent used. We retrospectively studied 89 postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) patients with proven Escherichia coli peritonitis and investigated the clinical consequences of the E. coli resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate. Significantly increased mortality, days of ventilation and ICU stay were noted in the co-amoxicillin/clavulanate resistant group. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the sensitivity of E. coli to amoxicillin/clavulanate in the postoperative ICU setting has decreased in recent years. We can conclude that the current antibiotic regimen for the empirical treatment of ICU patients with peritonitis, as used in our hospital, needs to be changed. A switch, for instance, to ceftriaxone (Rocephin) in combination with metronidazole and gentamicin, instead of the present regimen of amoxicillin/clavulanate in combination with gentamicin, seems preferable.
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We report eight cases of liver injury related to amoxycillin-clavulanate. Liver biopsy performed in seven patients revealed varying degrees of injury to interlobular bile ducts in all cases. Lesions included irregularity of the nuclei, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, lymphocytic infiltration, destruction and endothelialization of the bile duct epithelium. Ductopenia was not observed. In two patients liver injury was accompanied by prominent extrahepatic manifestations (acute interstitial nephritis in one and acute lacrimal gland inflammation and sialadenitis with prolonged xerostomia in the other). We conclude that interlobular bile-duct lesions of varying severity are a common feature in liver injury related to amoxycillin-clavulanate. Side effects of the drug include acute interstitial nephritis and sialadenitis.
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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in adult population. They are prevalent in all age groups both in women and men. Also, UTIs are the most frequent indication for empirical antibiotic treatment in emergency department. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance rates in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs. Adult patients admitted to emergency department with uncomplicated UTIs were included in this cross-sectional study. Mid-stream urine samples were obtained under sterile conditions and cultured quantitatively. After 24 hours, the samples showing 10(5) colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Resistance to fosfomycin-trometamol (FT), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AC), ciprofloxacin (CIP), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and cefpodoxime (CEF) was tested by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion system. Escherichia (E.) coli accounted for the vast majority (93.4%) of the organisms isolated in the study. Among the E. coli positive patients, resistance to TMP-SMX was the most common antibiotic resistance. The E. coli species detected in our study group were least resistant to FT (2.4%). The resistance rates, especially to CEF, AC and CIP, were significantly higher in patients over 50 years of age. In conclusion, in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs, TMP-SMX should be excluded from empirical treatment, while fosfomycin could be a viable option in all age groups.
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Mean aerobic and anaerobic oral bacterial counts were decreased in both topical treatment groups compared with the placebo group on the first postoperative day, achieving statistical significance with Augmentin/Timentin (aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts) and Cleocin (aerobic counts). Significantly less postoperative pain and mouth odor were reported for both Cleocin (P = 0.014 and P = 0.005, respectively) and Augmentin/Timentin (P = 0.026 and P = 0.05, respectively) topical treatment groups when compared with the placebo group.