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Generally, clinical symptoms such as abnormal leukorrhea are caused by C. trachomatis, an ordinary bacteria in cervical infection. The effects of levofloxacin administration at a dose of 300 mg/day for 5-14 days were investigated in the subjects (n = 66) after the discussion of cystic cervicitis. The treatment was made in combination with chloramphenicol-solcoseryl tablet for vaginal use. And it was demonstrated that treatment was effective in all subjects. Then, Sero IPALISA, an examination of IgA/IgG antibody was conducted for the screening of Chlamydia infection (n = 258). The rate of antibody-positive case was 48/160 (30.0%) for the non-pregnant women and 26/98 (26.5%) for the pregnant. The occurrence rates for the women singing in 15-24 and 35-39 years of age were 50 and 41%, respectively. The results from the measurement of the antibody titer were as follows: the rate of IgA/IgG positive care was 61/87 for IgA and 56/87 for IgG when the cut-off index was 1.11 or more. The rates for both antibody were 11/87 (12.6%) and 24/87 (27.6%) for the indexes of 1.11-3.00 and 3.01 or more, respectively. Next, one to three courses levofloxacin at 300 mg/day for 14 days were given to 48 non-pregnant subjects infected with Chlamydia and one to two courses of clarithromycin at 400 mg/day for 14 days were given to 26 pregnant subjects. Side effects have not been noted in any care and there was no changes in the IgA/IgG antibody titer depending on these treatments.
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Two patients developed bleb-related ocular infection attributable to Gemella haemolysans and Gemella morbillorum after trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C. Both patients had thin-walled cystic filtering blebs before ocular infection. One patient underwent urgent vitrectomy with intravitreal injection of ceftazidime and vancomycin. The other received an intraocular injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime. After surgical intervention, 2 cases were administered topical levofloxacin and sulfobenzylpenicillin, and intravenous cefpirome. The DNA from the microorganism was sequenced and identified as G. haemolysans and G. morbillorum.
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Understanding the fate and transport of antibiotics in porous media can help reduce their contamination risks to soil and groundwater systems. In this work, batch and column experiments were conducted to determine the interactions between two representative antibiotics, sulfacetamide (SA) and levofloxacin (LEV), and sand porous media under various solution pH, humic acid (HA) concentration, grain size, and moisture content conditions. Batch sorption experimental results indicated that the sand had relatively strong bonding affinity to LEV, but little sorption of SA under different pH, HA concentration, grain size conditions. Results from the packed sand column experiments showed that SA had extremely high mobility in the porous media for all combinations of pH, HA concentration, grain size, and moisture content. The mass recovery of SA was higher than 98.5% in all the columns with the exception of the one packed with fine sand (97.2%). The retention of LEV in the columns was much higher and the recovery rates ranged from 0% to 71.1%. Decreases in solution pH, HA concentration, grain size, or moisture content reduced the mobility of LEV in the columns under the tested conditions. These results indicated that type of antibiotics and environmental conditions also played an important role in controlling their fate and transport in porous media. Mathematical models were applied to simulate and interpret experimental data, and model simulations described the interactions between the two antibiotics and sand porous media very well. Findings from this study elucidated the key factors and processes controlling the fate of SA and LEV in porous media, which can inform the prediction and assessment of the environmental risks of antibiotics.
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We report a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) keratitis after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK).
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The purpose of this study was to describe a patient, 7-month-old child with ventriculoperitoneal shunts for hydrocephalus with ventriculitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Two ventriculoperitoneal shunts were inserted just after birth and on the second month. On the sixth month, both shunts were removed because of dysfunction, and external drainage was inserted. The child developed fever, and lumbar puncture revealed a high leukocyte count and protein concentration after external drainage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures yielded E. faecium, which was resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin G, vancomycin, and teicoplanin and was susceptible to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, levofloxacin, and rifampin, as determined by the disk diffusion method. As a result of the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, multidrug antibiotic therapy was changed from vancomycin and ceftazidime to chloramphenicol, rifampin, and meropenem. In addition, a rifampin-clindamycin-impregnated shunt (The Codman Hakim Bactiseal, Raynham, MA) was inserted. The patient became afebrile, and CSF cultures were sterile after 15 days of yielding E. faecium. Implantation of the rifampin-clindamycin-impregnated shunt and timely use of appropriate antibiotics for 10 days according to antimicrobial susceptibility testing seem to be important in the resolution of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections, especially in countries where linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin are not in use yet.
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Children having undergone upper endoscopy between March 2002 and March 2008 at the same two co-operating pediatric gastroenterology units which had also been collaborating on the prior assessment were included. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, histology, and culture. If the latter was positive, susceptibility testing to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole by E-test followed. From March 2004 onwards, susceptibility to levofloxacin, tetracycline and rifampin was additionally assessed.
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Among the 184 allo-HSCT recipients on levofloxacin prophylaxis, 28 (15.2 %) experienced breakthrough VSB. All of the 28 recipients with VSB were treated with a cefepime-based or piperacillin/tazobactam-based regimen. The susceptibility rates of the VGS strains for levofloxacin, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, and vancomycin were 0 %, 95 %, 100 %, 100 %, and 100 %, respectively. Both the MIC50 (minimum inhibitory concentration) and the MIC90 of ceftazidim (0.5 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively) were higher than the MIC90 of all the other anti-pseudomonal beta-lactams (APBLs). Only 1 VGS strain had a penicillin MIC ≥ 2 μg/mL by the Etest (3.6 %). There were no cases with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that was associated with VSB, although the rate of viridans group streptococcal shock syndrome was high (26 %). The crude 30-day mortality rate in the VSB group (10.7 %) did not differ significantly from that in the BSI without VSB group (9.3 %) or non-BSI group (7.0 %) (P = 0.77). Also, VSB was not a risk factor for all-cause mortality up to 60 days following allo-HSCT (P = 0.43).