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In this study, 72 men with nongonococcal urethritis were treated with levofloxacin. Before and after treatment, symptoms and signs were assessed and first-pass urine was examined for C trachomatis, M genitalium, U urealyticum, and Mycoplasma hominis by polymerase chain reaction-based assays.
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Empirical fluoroquinolone therapy is widely used in treating complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), even in areas of high fluoroquinolone resistance. While it is believed that high antibiotic concentrations in urine might be sufficient to overcome and effectively treat infections caused by resistant bacteria, clinical trial data validating this assumption are limited. This post hoc analysis evaluated the efficacy of ceftolozane/tazobactam versus levofloxacin in the subgroup of patients with cUTIs caused by levofloxacin-resistant pathogens in a randomized, controlled trial (NCT01345929/NCT01345955).
These results suggest that fluoroquinolone-resistant phenotype in a type III secretion system exoU strain background contributes toward the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in pneumonia.
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Moxifloxacin (MFX) and levofloxacin (LFX), class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, are the two most prescribed drugs to multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients. A single, sensitive and reliable LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to simultaneously quantitate the levels of these drugs in human serum where enrofloxacin (EFX) was used as internal standard (IS). Quantification was achieved by multiple reaction monitoring of selected mass transitions from precursor ions to product ions m/z 402.2→384.2 for MFX, 362.2→318.2 for LFX, and 362.1→318.3 for EFX. Calibration curves were plotted using concentrations ranging between 0.23-1000ng/mL for MFX and 0.13-1000ng/mL for LFX, and the correlation coefficients (r(2)) were in excess of 0.999. Intra- and inert-day accuracy was ranged between 92.1-104% with mean recoveries of 96% and 95.5% for MFX and LFX, respectively and precision was <9% at all quality control concentration levels. Matrix effect analysis showed extraction efficiency of 93.0-94.6% for MFX and 90.9-99.5% for LFX. Application of the developed method to real sample analysis resulted in efficient quantification of MFX and LFX in serum samples obtained from ten MDR-TB patients. The result indicated that the method could be applied as a potential drug monitoring tool to accurately analyze MFX and LFX within a short run time.
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Staphylococcus aureus infections complicate care of combat-related injuries and can independently result in skin and soft-tissue infections during deployments or training. Community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains seem to produce severe disease but retain susceptibility to many oral antimicrobials. This study characterizes 84 MRSA isolates recovered from wound cultures at a combat support hospital in Iraq.
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The study showed that the most commonly used intravenous systemic antimicrobial agent was ciprofloxacin. Thus, strategies are needed to specifically target these agents for prescribing improvement.
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In this study, we tested five compounds belonging to a novel series of piperazine arylideneimidazolones for the ability to inhibit the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump. The biphenylmethylene derivative (BM-19) and the fluorenylmethylene derivative (BM-38) were found to possess the strongest efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activities in the AcrAB-TolC-overproducingEscherichia colistrain 3-AG100, whereas BM-9, BM-27, and BM-36 had no activity at concentrations of up to 50 μM in a Nile red efflux assay. MIC microdilution assays demonstrated that BM-19 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 200 μM) was able to reduce the MICs of levofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, and clarithromycin 8-fold. BM-38 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 100 μM) was able to reduce only the MICs of oxacillin and linezolid (2-fold). Both compounds markedly reduced the MIC of rifampin (BM-19, 32-fold; and BM-38, 4-fold), which is suggestive of permeabilization of the outer membrane as an additional mechanism of action. Nitrocefin hydrolysis assays demonstrated that in addition to their EPI activity, both compounds were in fact weak permeabilizers of the outer membrane. Moreover, it was found that BM-19, BM-27, BM-36, and BM-38 acted as near-infrared-emitting fluorescent membrane probes, which allowed for their use in a combined influx and efflux assay and thus for tracking of the transport of an EPI across the outer membrane by an efflux pump in real time. The EPIs BM-38 and BM-19 displayed the most rapid influx of all compounds, whereas BM-27, which did not act as an EPI, showed the slowest influx.