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The medicines information materials incorporating simple text and pictograms resulted in significantly improved adherence to therapy in the short term, whereas a non-significant increase in adherence was associated with the availability of the more complex information. This was shown by both the self-reported assessment as well as the tablet count.
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) was used alone and in combination with other antimicrobial agents as treatment for infections in patients with cancer. Patients who did not respond to previous treatment with combinations of antibiotics received TMP-SMZ orally or parenterally during a total of 127 episodes of infection. The combined response rate for these two routes of administration was 49%, and the individual rates were similar for both routes. Twenty-eight infections were treated with TMP-SMZ plus tobramycin, and 75% responded after treatment with other drugs had failed. Ticarcillin plus TMP-SMZ was used as initial therapy for presumed or proved infection during 276 episodes of fever. Of 102 documented infections, 77% responded. Toxicity from TMP-SMZ was minimal.
Nocardiosis in an immunocompetent small child is reported.
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The suitability of micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the simultaneous trace determination of several compounds (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, sulfanilic acid, sulfanilamide, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and nonoxynol-9) was assessed. The mixture was separated within 14min at an applied voltage of 22kV by using 30mM phosphate electrolyte, containing 10mM SDS, adjusted to pH 7.8. Under optimized separation conditions acceptable levels of linearity, precision and accuracy were obtained for all compounds. The method could be used as part of a cleaning validation study when assaying trace levels of co-trimoxazole drug, some of its decomposition products and detergent in the swab samples collected from pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment, after cleaning.
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Expectoration of bronchial casts (plastic bronchitis) is an uncommon but ancient problem. Herein we describe a 40-year-old man, with no prior lung disease, who had dyspnea, cough, and expectoration of long branching bronchial casts. No specific cause was delineated, although special stains for eosinophilic granule major basic protein demonstrated occasional foci of eosinophils and small amounts of extracellular major basic protein in the bronchial casts. Various diseases, such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis, have been associated with the formation of bronchial casts and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Although most previously reported cases have been associated with some type of pulmonary disease, our patient had no evidence of an underlying pulmonary disorder.
Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to beta-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. beta-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 mug/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 mug/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 mug/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections caused by contemporary resistant phenotypes.