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There are now three methods to evaluate treatments of pneumocystosis: (1) the animal model, using adult rats under corticosteroids; the intensity of infection is assessed on pulmonary appositions and can then be evaluated after administration of a potential treatment compared with a reference; (2) the in vitro propagation of P. carinii observed from rat lung extracts cultured on cell lines; this method, however, is limited by the difficulties encountered in quantifying the parasitic types; (3) the inhibition by the drugs tested of enzymes involved in folate synthesis is a method that is still under evaluation. The animal model remains the reference method.
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Typical cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction to co-trimoxazole was seen in a woman after autologous bone marrow transplantation and immunotherapy. She had developed no such reaction during chemotherapy prior to the transplant or immediately after the transplant. The immunoperturbed state that exists for a period of time after bone marrow transplantation, especially in the presence of immunomodulation caused by combined therapy with recombinant human interferon alpha and interleukin-2, with exposure to potentially reaginic agents may have contributed to the development of the hypersensitivity reaction in this patient.
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Forty adult patients with haematologic malignancies (HM) and 35 healthy adults were studied; an additional 13 HM patients taking ascorbate supplements (HM-AA) were also evaluated. Twenty-two of 40 HM patients were prescribed and were compliant with TMP-SMX 960 mg three to four times weekly.
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The emergence of pan-resistance in bacterial pathogens poses a threat to human health. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a serious challenge, causing nosocomial infection and community-acquired outbreaks in hospitals globally, including in Pakistan. We collected 90 Acinetobacter isolates from patients with secondary or nosocomial infections from different hospitals in Pakistan and screened for carbapenem-resistant strains. Of the 90 isolates, 59 were resistant to carbapenems. Among oxacillinase -encoding genes, blaOXA-51-like was common in all isolates, including in combination with blaOXA-23-like in 14 isolates; however, blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58-like were completely absent. Among metallo-β-lactamase-encoding genes, only blaNDM-1 was found in one isolate, while the other three genes, blaIMP, blaVIM and blaSIM, were completely absent. None of the isolates was found to harbour the blaCTX-M gene. The isolates were also tested for susceptibilities to a panel of different antibiotics belonging to several classes. Of all the drugs tested, tigecycline was the most effective with 80 % sensitivity amongst isolates, followed by colistin with 50 % sensitivity. Three categories of resistance were found in these isolates: extreme drug resistance in 26, pan-drug resistance in 19 and multidrug resistance in 87 isolates. The isolates exhibited a high resistance to cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam antibiotics, followed by tetracycline and β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitor combination, fluoroquinolone and aminoglycosides. The results show a prominent level of antibiotic-resistance phenotypes in A. baumannii and strongly suggest the need for full-scale national surveillance of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii with particular emphasis on the newly identified NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1).
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Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis is a diffuse bilateral alveolopathy encountered in the immunocompromised host with cancer, a congenital immune deficiency disorder, an organ transplant, severe protein-energy malnutrition or recipients of immunosuppressive therapy for other conditions. The onset is abrupt with fever and tachypnea. No rales are heard and the roentgenogram reveals a diffuse alveolar disease. Once the pneumonitis is evident, the infection is usually fatal if no treatment is given. The diagnosis is best established by the demonstration of the causative organism in specimens obtained by open lung biopsy, or other invasive methods, and stained with Gomori's methenamine silver nitrate, toluidine blue O or polychrome stains. Of the two drugs available for treatment, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is preferred over pentamidine isethionate because of relative difference in adverse effects. With either drug the recovery rate is about 75%. The infection can be prevented in high risk patients by the administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylactically.
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Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations' (55th and 57th codon) association with prior sulfa prophylaxis failure has been reported from both developed and developing countries. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii DHPS mutations from 2006 to 2009 on P. jirovecii isolates obtained from HIV-infected patients with a clinical diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) admitted to our tertiary care reference health center in New Delhi, India.
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In chequerboard studies, iclaprim was tested in combination with 32 different antimicrobial agents against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria including reference strains.
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The prevention of graft rejection with the use of systemic immunosuppression after OSST is crucial and should be approached with the same rigor as in solid organ transplantation. With appropriate long-term monitoring by the cornea specialist and transplant physician, the risk of irreversible toxicity at current dosages of systemic immunosuppression in this population is minimal.
Nocardial infections in an immunocompromised host have been increasingly reported. Nocardial brain abscess, the most common presentation of nocardiosis in the central nervous system, is associated with a high mortality rate because of its delayed diagnosis and its unresponsiveness to the usual antibiotic therapy. We report four patients who experienced a long-term cure of nocardial brain abscess due to treatment by a combination of surgery and postoperative antibiotic therapy; 1 man and 3 women, ages ranging from 43 to 67 years old. Two patients were associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and two with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Patients underwent surgical aspiration and drainage of brain abscess. Nocardia was identified from the aspirated specimen and postoperative antibiotic therapy for 5-6 weeks was performed using effective antibiotic agents; sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST), imipenem/cilastatin and minocycline (MINO) in Case 1, ST and MINO in Case 2, erythromycin in Case 3, and panipenem/betamipron and cefotaxime in Case 4. Case 3 and Case 4 with multilobulated brain abscess underwent total excision of the brain abscess. All patients showed successful cure of nocardial brain abscess with no recurrence for the period of 1-8 years. The combination of surgery and postoperative antibiotic therapy provides a good prognosis for nocardial brain abscess.
Unconditional logistic regression models were used to quantify the association between exposure to anti-infective drugs and the risk of SGA.