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Infections in lower extremities are sometimes concerned with systemic immunological disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and systemic lupus erythematosus, which are treated with systemic steroids. Steroid therapy impairs the epithelial wound healing and with systemic condition, especially with systemic lupus erythematosus, the wound is susceptible for infection. Even a pyoderma gangrenosum sometimes occurs in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura with an incisional wound of hernia. The severe signs and symptoms are the deep skin and soft tissue infections, mainly caused by group A streptococcus, composed of necrotizing fasciitis and muscle necrosis. Medically suspected necrotizing fasciitis patients should be empirically and immediately administered with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which may cover the common suspected pathogens. In type I (polymicrobial) infection, the selection of antimicrobial should be based on medical history and Gram staining and culture. The coverage against anaerobes is important in type I infection. Metronidazole, clindamycin, or beta-lactams with beta-lactamase inhibitor or carbapenems are the treatment of choice against anaerobes, while early surgical debridement-wide enough and deep enough-is the core treatment of necrotizing fasciitis and results in significantly better mortality compared with those who underwent surgery after a few hours of delay. When necrotizing fasciitis is considered and the patient is brought to the operation room, aggressive and extensive surgical debridement is explored. Tissue involved should be completely removed until no further evidence of infection is seen. When further debridement is required, the patient must return to the operating room immediately. In this context, the temporal coverage using the artificial dermis after debridement is useful because there is no loss of the patient's own tissue and yet it is easier for "second-look" surgery or secondary reconstruction, and extensive enough debridement is always the mainstay of the therapy.
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The efficacy and the safety of an antibiotic in cephamycin group, cefbuperazone (CBPZ), were investigated in 93 patients with severe infections complicated with hematological disorders. The efficacy evaluation was made in 85 cases with underlying hematological disorders including 49 cases (57.6%) of leukemia and 18 cases (21.2%) of malignant lymphoma. The overall efficacy rate was 50.6% of the 85 evaluable cases. The clinical efficacy rate for sepsis and suspected sepsis was 53.4%. The most frequently used group of antibiotics for combination therapy was aminoglycosides in 37 cases, in which an efficacy rate of 62.2%, a higher rate than the efficacy rate of 48.5% for all the combination therapy cases, was obtained. In 16 cases in which penicillins were used as combination drug, the efficacy rate obtained was low, 31.3%. Efficacy rates obtained for cases with different neutrophil counts at the start of therapies were as follows: 52.2% in 23 cases with neutrophil counts below 100/mm3, 46.2% in 13 cases with neutrophil counts between 100 and 499/mm3 and 51.3% in 39 cases with neutrophil counts equal to or above 500/mm3, thus no significant differences in efficacy rates were observed for patients with different neutrophil counts. These results appear to suggest that CBPZ, alone or in combination with other antibiotic such as aminoglycosides, may be quite useful in the treatment of severe infections in patients with hematological disorders.
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The diverse clonal origin of tested isolates indicates the presence of multiple S. epidermidis strains among neonates in the NICU setting.
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A case of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis is presented in which the Gallium scan was the first diagnostic modality to alert the clinicians to the existence of an inflammatory bowel process. The mechanism of localization of the radiopharmaceutical in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed. Although colonoscopy is far more specific and should be the first-line diagnostic tool used in assessing the presence of pseudomembranous colitis, Gallium scanning may have a role in the follow-up of treatment and in cases of relapse.
Tetracycline, clindamycin, and other protein synthesis inhibitors at subinhibitory concentrations significantly increased the expression of the pivotal virulence regulator agr and production of the agr-regulated cytolytic phenol-soluble modulins in the community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain USA300. Our results suggest that such protein synthesis inhibitors may exacerbate the progression of CA-MRSA disease when applied at concentrations that are too low or when treating infections caused by strains resistant to those antibiotics.
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In vitro susceptibility testing on 200 Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated during a 4-year period from vaginal/rectal specimens demonstrated a very high resistance rate for both erythromycin (54%) and clindamycin (33%). Methylase genes erm(B) and erm(TR) and efflux genes mef(E) and mef(A) were detected. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed evidence of both clonal spread and multiclonal dissemination of resistant strains. All but 3 of 200 isolates were susceptible to telithromycin.
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The addition of calcium hydroxide to Odontopaste or Ledermix Paste results in the rapid destruction of the steroid.
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To determine current practices in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis, 72 of 85 uveitis specialists (85%) in the American Uveitis Society completed a detailed questionnaire. Questions involved the indications for beginning treatment, choice of antiparasitic/antimicrobial agents, and experience with treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis in special situations including pregnancy, neonatal infections, and immunocompromised patients. Most of the respondents treat patients whose visual acuity had decreased to worse than 20/200, lesions located in the peripapillary, perifoveal, or maculopapillary bundle regions, and lesions associated with severe vitreous inflammation. Most would not treat patients who retained visual acuity of 20/20, lesions located in the far peripheral retina, or lesions associated with only trace to mild vitreous inflammation. Treatment of other combinations of factors remains controversial. Eight different antimicrobial drugs are used in various combinations for lesions threatening the macula or optic nerve head. Systemic corticosteroids are used by 59 of 62 respondents (95%) as part of their initial treatment regimen. The most commonly used regimens are pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine/corticosteroids (20 of 62 [32%]) and pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine/clindamycin/corticosteroids (17 of 62 [27%]). Adjunctive therapies (photocoagulation, cryotherapy, or vitrectomy) have been used by 20 of 60 respondents (33%). Most alter treatment during pregnancy, in newborn patients, and in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Of the patients enrolled in this study, 8.2 percent developed acute renal insufficiency. Risk factors for acute renal insufficiency included renal disease, aminoglycoside therapy, nosocomial pneumonia, elevated estimated creatinine clearance prior to study entry, cardiac arrest/shock, congestive heart failure, total duration of antibiotics > 7 days, clindamycin therapy, liver disease, and first-generation cephalosporin usage. Risk factors for aminoglycoside-related acute renal insufficiency identified via multiple logistic regression included amphotericin B, congestive heart failure, aminoglycoside trough concentration > 1.5 mg/L, and clindamycin therapy.