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473 patients were entered into a randomised trial. 224 received antibiotic prophylaxis and 249 received no antibiotics. A further 183 patients were not randomised but were treated according to the operator's preference (64 antibiotics, 119 no antibiotics); these patients are included only in the analysis of predictors of infection. Patients were followed up for a mean (SD) of 19(5) months. Among the patients in the randomised group there were nine infections requiring a repeat operation, all in the group not receiving antibiotic (P = 0.003). In the total patient cohort there were 13 infections, all but one in the non-antibiotic group (P = 0.006). Nine of the infections presented as erosion of the pulse generator or electrode, three as septicaemia secondary to Staphylococcus aureus, and one as a pocket abscess secondary to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infections were significantly more common when the operator was inexperienced (< or = 100 previous patients), the operation was prolonged, or after a repeat operation for non-infective complications (principally lead displacement). Infection was not significantly more common in patients identified preoperatively as being at high risk (for example patients with diabetes mellitus, patients receiving long term steroid treatment), although there was a trend in this direction.
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The originality of this study is to present a series of necrotizing fasciitis treated and followed these last five years, and to compare the therapeutic results with those of the literature.
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Unbound drug plasma concentration-time curves were simulated with mean population pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefuroxime axetil, spiramycin, clindamycin, azithromycin, and metronidazole. For drugs showing time-dependent antibacterial killing, the time above MIC90 of the pathogens studied was calculated (T>MIC). For drugs with concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC90 ratio was calculated.
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Background. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common pathogens that cause hospital- and community-acquired infections in the world. The use of molecular typing methods is essential for determining the origin of the strains, their clonal relations, and also in epidemiological investigations. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistant S. aureus isolates and using spa, agr, and SCCmec typing to determine the dominant types in Iran. Material and Method. Fifty isolates of S. aureus were collected from January to May 2010. S. aureus identification was performed by biochemical tests. Disk diffusion method was employed to assess the sensitivity of S. aureus strains to antibiotics and then genetic analysis of bacteria was performed using SCCmec, agr, and spa typing. Results. S. aureus resistance to tetracycline, cefoxitin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, Cot: cotrimoxazole, levofloxacin, rifampin, and vancomycin were found to be 36%, 18%, 12%, 12%, 22%, 6%, 6%, and 0%, respectively. The results of this study showed that 16% of the isolates were resistant to methicillin (MRSA) and the majority of isolates were SSC mec type IV. In addition spa and agr typing revealed agr typeI and spa type t7688 to be the most predominant. Conclusion. In this study, spa typing showed 100% reliability and the t7688 spa type had a frequency of 26% compared to the frequency of 0.0% in the Ridom SpaServer. The frequency of t304 spa type was higher than the global average.
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For infections due to both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin would be appropriate for therapy whereas Fusidic acid and Clindamycin may, in addition, be recommended for Gram positive organisms. It is also concluded that a prevalence rate of 37.1% of bacteremic cases existed in the sampled population and that monomicrobial cases were more predominant.
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Capillary electrophoresis has been utilized to detect trace components in bulk pharmaceutical products, with emphasis on the identification of differences among manufacturers that can be used for source verification in suspect/counterfeit cases. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sodium dodecyl sulfate was used in the analyses of beta-lactam antibiotics. The aminoglycoside clindamycin phosphate and the macrolide erythromycin stearate were analyzed using borate buffers with direct UV detection. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin was used as a buffer additive in the erythromycin studies. Determination of product potency using peak area ratios has been demonstrated for ampicillin and clindamycin phosphate.
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We report resistant rates to erythromycin and clindamycin among Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) isolated from a random sample of healthy male and nonpregnant female college students. Observed resistance rates were twice as high as those reported among pregnant women from the same geographic area 2 years prior.
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This was a prospective 2-year pneumococcal surveillance study in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal infections of ≥50 years' age group on fifty isolates of S. pneumoniae.
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A total of 274 pathogens were recovered from 81% specimens of 73% of the patients. Haemophilus influenzae (31.8%) was the most prevalent pathogen, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (17.2%), Group A beta hemolytic Streptococci, GABHS (12.0%), Moraxella catarrhalis (7.7%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (7.3%), and nine other bacterial species (24.0%). Penicillins (penicillin, ampicillin) had 100% activity against GABHS followed by 96.5% in H. influenzae, 45% in S. pneumoniae, and 0% in S. aureus strains. The efficacy of beta-lactamase inhibitor antibiotics (ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid) were similar to those of penicillins but had superior activity (89.4%) against S. aureus strains. Cefotaxime had high activity (100%) against GABHS and H. influenzae followed by S. aureus (89.4%). Cotrimoxazole was also active in S. aureus (97.8%) and H. influenzae (83.9%) but revealed intermediate activity (45%) in S. penumoniae and was not efficient (0%) in GABHS. Macrolids (erythromycin, clindamycin) were very efficient (100%) in GABHS followed by S. aureus (95.7%) and had intermediate activity (50%) in S. pneumoniae. Levofloxacin, telithromycin, and vancomycin had 100% activity against S. pneumoniae strains.