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We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007 Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2007), and EMBASE (January 1974 to July 2007).
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Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers.
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The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of an antimicrobial agent provides important information that can be used to maximize bacteriologic and clinical efficacy, minimize selective pressure for the development of antimicrobial resistance, and determine an optimal dosing regimen. Judicious selection of an antimicrobial based on local susceptibility data and PK and PD parameters is imperative in this era of increasing resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae, a leading cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. The beta-lactam antimicrobials display time-dependent bacterial killing with minimal to no persistent effects. Ketolides and fluoroquinolones display concentration-dependent bacterial killing, and tetracyclines and macrolides display time-dependent killing. All have prolonged persistent effects (e.g., postantibiotic effect) that retard or prevent bacterial regrowth when free drug levels fall below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). New high-dose and/or extended-release formulations of traditional antimicrobials have been added to the current armamentarium for treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. These formulations include amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension 90/6.4 mg/kg per day divided every 12 hours (Augmentin ES-600; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC), amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium extended-release tablets 2 x 1,000 mg/62.5 mg every 12 hours (Augmentin XR; GlaxoSmithKline), clarithromycin extended-release tablets 2 x 500 mg once daily (Biaxin XL; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL), and cefaclor extended-release tablets 375 mg or 500 mg every 12 hours (Ceclor CD; Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals, Indianapolis, IN). Of these agents, only amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension and amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium extended-release tablets were designed to treat infections caused by penicillin-resistant pneumococci (penicillin MIC < or =2 microg/mL). Extended-release clarithromycin does not provide higher daily doses than its immediate-release counterpart; rather, it allows for once-daily dosing of this agent because of its slower absorption following oral administration. Extended-release cefaclor is considered clinically equivalent to 250 mg of immediate-release cefaclor pulvules administered 3 times daily; it cannot be used interchangeably with 500 mg 3-times-daily dosages of other cefaclor formulations. Thus, despite providing a similar or higher total daily dose than its immediate-release counterpart, extended-release cefaclor is indicated only for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of certain organisms.
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A 43-year-old female with Staphyloccocus-induced perianal abscess, was admitted to hospital because of a clinical picture of acute renal failure and thrombotic microangiopathy. Schistocytes, thrombopenia, a negative Coombs test and no detectable plasma haptoglobin were diagnostic for thrombotic microangiopathy. Antibiotics, surgical drainage, plasmapheresis and fresh frozen plasma were given with a favourable evolution. We review the prognostic factors determining recovery of renal function and hematological abnormalities.
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In a randomized, multicenter, open-label study, 490 ambulatory adult patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) were randomized to roxithromycin (ROX) 150 mg b.i.d. orally (n = 244) or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (AMX + CA) as 500 mg AMX + 125 mg CA t.i.d orally (n = 24). Clinical results were analyzed in 477 patients with acute bronchitis (79%), chronic bronchitis (CB) (14%), and pneumonia (7%). There were significantly more patients with underlying disease (cardiovascular diseases, p = 0.045; and alcoholism, (p less than 0.001), and more patients over the age of 65 years (p = 0.045) in the ROX group. Overall clinical efficacy was similar in both groups: 88% (206:235) in the ROX group and 85% (205:242) in the AMX + CA group. Side effects were reported in 67 cases (28%) in the AMX + CA group and in 21 cases (9%) in the ROX group (p less than 0.0001), causing withdrawal in 21 and three cases, respectively (p less than 0.001). Thus, despite being administered to a significantly older and more ill group of patients with LRTI, roxithromycin was as effective as amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and better tolerated.
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This report of Augmentin-induced cholestasis is not unique. It shows that previous drug intake must be carefully investigated in any case of cholestasis of unknown cause.
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Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, β-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.
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Eighty-nine patients from 16 centers were included: 21 (23.6%) patients had acute infection and 68 (76.4%) had chronic infection. Of all 89 patients, there were 80 total culture isolates with 55 (68.8%) Gram-positive isolates, 23 (28.7%) Gram-negative isolates, and 2 (2.5%) Mycobacterium isolates. In the acute group, 18/23 (78.3%) were Gram-positive and 5/23 (21.7%) were Gram-negative. In the chronic group, 37/57 (64.9%) were Gram-positive, 18/57 (31.6%) were Gram-negative, and 2/57 (3.5%) were Mycobacterium isolates. The proportions of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms between groups revealed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.20). The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the acute group, 4/23 (17.4%), was greater than the chronic group, 1/57 (1.8%) (p < or = 0.01).
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Females were particularly prone to have confirmed cases of UTI. Escherichia coli were the principle aetiological agent accounting for 61.7% of the isolates. Other bacterial agents were Enterobacter agglomerans (18.7%), Citrobacter diversus (4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.3%), Proteus spp. (2.1%), Pseudomonas spp. (0.1%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (9.3%), and Streptococcus feacalis (0.7%). Over 60% of the Gram negative bacterial isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole and ampicillin, 39% resistant to augmentin and 25% were resistant to nalidixic acid. The ceftazidime was the most efficacious antimicrobial with an Escherichia coli resistance level of 2.2% (P=0.05). Resistance to nitrofuraintoin, gentamicin, cefuroxime, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin was demonstrated in less than 15% of the bacterial isolates.