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Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common reasons for prescribing antibiotics in primary care. However, it is not clear whether antibiotics improve the outcome for patients with clinically diagnosed acute rhinosinusitis. We evaluated the effect of a combination product of amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate on adults with acute rhinosinusitis that was clinically diagnosed in a general practice setting.
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Along 1993 we have detected the emergence of an amoxicilline/clavulanate resistance in salmonellae and shigellae strains. To our knowledge this fact has not been published up to now (Medline, 1990-October 1994). We don't know the clinical importance of this fact.
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Multicenter trial at 3 teaching hospitals in Turkey.
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Among the 715 subjects 85% rated the taste of cefdinir as good or really good, the highest possible ratings; 63% of subjects assigned the same ratings to amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium, cefprozil or azithromycin. Seventy-one percent rated the smell of cefdinir as good or really good; 64% assigned the same ratings to the comparators.
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Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is an idiosyncratic systemic reaction to a drug. The clinical presentation of this syndrome comprises a diverse spectrum, ranging from mild to fulminating organ failure. Nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms are common in DHS, but severe morbidities and mortalities attributed to gut disease in DHS are rarely described. We present a case of DHS with significant gastrointestinal symptoms of prolonged profuse watery diarrhoea and persistent hypokalaemia requiring judicious intravenous water and electrolyte replacement. The symptoms resolved only after the introduction of intravenous hydrocortisone. It is important to consider intravenous corticosteroids if the gastrointestinal system is involved, as accelerated gut motility and mucosal damage would affect absorption of oral medications. Supportive treatment with the monitoring of fluid and electrolytes status and judicious replacement remains fundamental in the management of DHS patients with gut involvement.
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Klebsiella pneumoniae strain DF12SA (HQ114261) was isolated from diabetic foot wounds. The strain showed resistance against ampicillin, kanamycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, spectinomycin, trimethoprim, tetracycline, meropenem, amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, augmentin, co-trimoxazole, carbapenems, penicillins and cefoperazone, and was sensitive to clindamycin. Molecular characterization of the multidrug-resistance phenotype revealed the presence of a class 1 integron containing two genes, a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) (PF00186), which confers resistance to trimethoprim; and aminoglycoside adenyltransferase (AadA) (PF01909), which confers resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. A class 1 integron in K. pneumoniae containing these two genes was present in eight (18.18%) out of 44 different diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutics that inhibit growth of multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae in DFU patients and still achieve amputation control. Am attempt was made to create a 3D model and find a suitable inhibitor using an in silico study. Rational drug design/testing requires crystal structures for DHFR and AadA. However, the structures of DHFR and AadA from K. pneumoniae are not available. Modelling was performed using Swiss Model Server and Discovery Studio 3.1. The PDBSum server was used to check stereo chemical properties using Ramachandran plot analysis of modeled structures. Clindamycin was found to be suitable inhibitor of DHFR and AadA. A DockingServer based on Autodock & Mopac was used for docking calculations. The amino acid residues Ser(32), Ile(46), Glu(53), Gln(54), Phe(57), Thr(72), Met(76), Val(78), Leu(79), Ser(122), Tyr(128), Ile(151) in case of DHFR and Phe(34), Asp(60), Arg(63), Gln(64), Leu(68), Glu(87), Thr(89), Val(90) for AadA were found to be responsible for positioning clindamycin into the active site. The study identifies amino acid residues crucial to 'DHFR and AadA -drug' and 'DHFR and AadA -inhibitor' interactions that might be useful in the ongoing search for a versatile DHFR and AadA -inhibitor.
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Escherichia coli was identified in 56/69 (81 %) peritoneal specimens; four isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, and one other isolate was resistant to gentamicin. Anaerobes were identified in 37/69 (54 %) peritoneal specimens; two anaerobic isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate and one isolate was resistant to metronidazole. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified in 4/69 (6 %) peritoneal specimens, and all were susceptible to gentamicin. Streptococcal species (two Group F streptococci and three β-haemolytic streptococci) were identified in 5/69 (7 %) specimens, and all were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate. Combination therapy involving amoxicillin-clavulanate and aminoglycoside is appropriate empirical treatment in 68/69 (99 %) patients. Addition of metronidazole to this regime would provide 100 % initial empirical coverage. Inadequate initial empiric antibiotic treatment and the presence of amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant E. coli were independent predictors of the post-operative infectious complications observed in 14/69 (20 %) patients.
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A 35-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a huge pelvic complex mass and progressively worsening low abdominal pain. The tumor workup, which included a computed tomography (CT) scan, revealed an extended pelvic abscess and bilateral hydronephrosis. Both cutaneous and vaginal fistulas were also noted. Endometrial curettage and biopsies of the skin and vaginal lesions confirmed the diagnosis of actinomycosis. The patient underwent conservative treatment and recovered well, although the skin lesion only healed after 12 weeks of oral antibiotic treatment. At the 1-year follow-up, a CT scan showed sequelae including a mildly atrophic left kidney and left hydronephrosis.
E. coli and mixed anaerobes are the predominant organisms identified in secondary peritonitis from appendicitis in children. Inadequate initial empirical antibiotic and amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant E. coli may contribute to increased post-operative infectious complications. This study provides evidence-based information on choice of combination therapy for paediatric appendicitis-related bacterial peritonitis.
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All cases of "pustular eruption" qualified as "serious" reported to the French Pharmacovigilance Centers between January 1985 and December 2001 were analyzed. Cases for which the diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis was not clearly identified were reviewed by a dermatologist. The relationship between acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and drug exposure was re-examined by one of us. An exhaustive review of the literature was also performed.