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In this study, we present population-based data regarding the prevalence of aerococci in clinical urinary samples. During a 3-month period, all aerococcal isolates from urinary samples from 2 clinical microbiology laboratories were collected. We identified 64 Aerococcus urinae isolates and 40 Aerococcus sanguinicola isolates, which correlates with an incidence of 33 cases of aerococcal bacteriuria per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The median age was 83years for all patients with aerococcal bacteriuria, which was significantly higher than for patients with Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis bacteriuria. Sex was almost equally distributed between men and women with aerococcal bacteriuria, whereas females dominated in E. coli bacteriuria. The aerococcal isolates displayed low MICs for ampicillin, cefalotin, mecillinam, and nitrofurantoin. Most A. sanguinicola isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, whereas most A. urinae isolates had low MICs. Clinical studies are needed to establish clinical breakpoints and optimal treatment.
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We describe the synthesis and evaluation of a library of variably-linked ciprofloxacin dimers. These structures unify and expand on the use of fluoroquinolones as probes throughout the antibiotic literature. A dimeric analog (19) showed enhanced inhibition of its intracellular target (DNA gyrase), and translation to antibacterial activity in whole cells was demonstrated. Overall, cell permeation was governed by physicochemical properties and bacterial type. A principal component analysis demonstrated that the dimers occupy a unique and privileged region of chemical space most similar to the macrolide class of antibiotics.
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Most post-traumatic acute infectious endophthalmitis occur within a week of open globe trauma, necessitating early antibiotic prophylaxis. There are few randomised studies that demonstrate the benefits of prophylactic antibiotics. This randomised controlled non-inferiority trial was aimed at determining the incidence of post-traumatic endophthalmitis using established intravenous/oral prophylaxis and comparing this to the incidence using oral antibiotics only.
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To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy and compressive strength of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) containing chlorhexidine and antibiotics at varying concentrations.
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Extensive surgical debridement of the branching granuloma, which extended throughout the length of the keel, followed by long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin and clindamycin provided full resolution of clinical signs. No recrudescence of clinical signs was evident for up to 18 months after the initial evaluation.
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The emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates has created the need for new therapeutic agents. We evaluated the intracellular activity of four carbapenem compounds against clinical nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS) isolates in vitro and ex vivo. Subsequently, the efficacy of carbapenem treatment against selected Salmonella isolates in vivo was assessed using a murine peritonitis model. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) for doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem against 126 NTS isolates were found to be 0.062 and 0.062, 0.015 and 0.015, 0.5 and 1, and 0.031 and 0.031 μg/ml, respectively. The intracellular killing effect of ertapenem was sustained for 24 h and was superior to that of imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem; its effect was comparable to that of ceftriaxone. Ertapenem demonstrated an excellent pharmacokinetic profile with a percent time above the MIC of 75.5% and an area under the concentration-time curve/MIC ratio of 20,733. When peritoneal exudate cells were examined directly ex vivo from mice with Salmonella-induced peritonitis, cells from mice treated with ertapenem and ceftriaxone had intracellular and extracellular bacterial counts reduced 10(2)- to 10(4)-fold and exhibited killing effects similar to each other. The survival rates of mice inoculated with 1 × 10(5) and 10(6) CFU of a ceftriaxone-susceptible Salmonella isolate that were subsequently treated with ertapenem or ceftriaxone were 100% and 90%, respectively. When mice were inoculated with 5 × 10(4) and 10(5) CFU of a ceftriaxone-resistant and ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella isolate, mice treated with ertapenem had a higher survival rate than mice treated with ceftriaxone (70% versus 0% and 50% versus 0%, respectively; P < 0.001). Our results suggest that ertapenem is at least as effective as ceftriaxone in treating murine Salmonella infections and show that further clinical investigations on the potential use of ertapenem in treatment of human Salmonella infections are warranted.
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Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Shigella species increased from 0% in 2004 to 44% in 2010 and S. flexneri was the predominant species. Of Shigella spp, ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) strains were mostly found among S. flexneri (8.3%), followed by S. sonnei (1.5%). Within S. flexneri (n = 2181), 14.5% were resistance to ciprofloxacin of which serotype 2a was predominant (96%). MIC of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin were 6-32 mg/L, 8-32 mg/L, and 8-24 mg/L, respectively in S. flexneri 2a isolates. Sequencing of QRDR genes of resistant isolates showed double mutations in gyrA gene (Ser83Leu, Asp87Asn/Gly) and single mutation in parC gene (Ser80Ile). A difference in amino acid substitution at position 87 was found between strains isolated in Bangladesh (Asp87Asn) and China (Asp87Gly) except for one. A novel mutation at position 211 (His→Tyr) in gyrA gene was detected only in the Bangladeshi strains. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was increased by the presence of CCCP indicating the involvement of energy dependent active efflux pumps. A single PFGE type was found in isolates from Bangladesh and China suggesting their genetic relatedness.
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Revascularization is a realistic treatment in immature necrotic molars. In addition, placing CEM cement as a new endodontic biomaterial over the blood clot formed inside the canals provided good seal and favorable outcomes.
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Sterile CSF drawn from patients was contaminated in vitro with several microorganisms chosen for their ability to cause neurosurgical-related infections: Streptococcus pneumoniae, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. β2TRNSF was examined at two time points: following immediate inoculation (t0) and following an overnight incubation (t18) over various bacterial concentrations. Samples of CSF inoculated with S pneumoniae were also examined in the presence of ciprofloxacin. For β2TRNSF analysis we used immunoblotting electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
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The prevalence of bacterial isolates in eye discharge was high in the study area and majority of isolates were gram-positive bacteria. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to frequently used antimicrobials. Therefore, drug susceptibility test is necessary before prescribing any antimicrobials.