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Antibiotics are usually used to prevent childhood recurrent urinary tract infections: cystitis or pyelonephritis. The mechanism of action of these antibiotics, although imperfectly known, seems to be double: the antibiotic acts by its bactericidal effect, but also probably for minimal concentrations by reducing adhesion capability of bacteria to the urothelium. The most commonly used molecules are cotrimoxazole, trimethoprime, pivmecillinam, cefaclor and nalidixic acid. However all have not been studied rigorously as for their prophylactic capacity, and in particular very little is known for patients presenting with vesico-ureteral reflux.
A two-year-old, male English springer spaniel developed severe mucocutaneous ulceration following treatment with trimethoprim-potentiated sulphadiazine. The clinical signs were consistent with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS): there were no target or arciform lesions typical of erythema multiforme minor and major; more than one mucosal surface was affected; epidermal detachment affected less than 10 per cent of the body surface area; and there was a clear history of drug exposure. Systemic signs included a severe hepatopathy, dyspnoea, pyrexia and cachexia. Glucocorticoid therapy was associated with secondary infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The clinical signs rapidly resolved following a single intravenous infusion of 0.51 g/kg human immunoglobulin (ivHIG) as a 5 per cent solution. By blocking FAS/FAS ligand (CD95/CD95L) interactions, ivHIG is thought to prevent keratinocyte apoptosis. It also binds to immunoglobulin G Fc receptors, inhibiting cell activation and cytokine synthesis, neutralises autoantibodies and immune complexes, blocks complement activity, is antimicrobial and increases colloid osmotic pressure. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of canine SJS using ivHIG, although it has been used to treat erythema multiforme in a cat and toxic epidermal necrolysis in a dog.
Forty six blood culture positive cases were studied during the current outbreak of multidrug resistant typhoid fever (MRTF). The present outbreak was caused by E1 phage type and organisms were resistant to all commonly used drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever, viz., chloramphenicol (78%), co-trimoxazole (76%) and ampicillin (68%). Treatment failures with chloramphenicol (45.5%) corroborated well with in vitro resistance. No treatment failure was seen with chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone, when these drugs were used in cases infected with sensitive strains. Among the alternative drugs used in cases with in vitro sensitivity, successful clinical response was seen with ceftriaxone (4/4) and cefotaxime (8/9) as compared to cephalexin (3/5) or a combination of cephalexin and furazolidone (9/12).
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Shigellosis is usually a non-invasive enteric disease, rarely accompanied by extra-intestinal manifestations. Shigella septicaemia is therefore reported in a child aged 10 months. In the laboratory the organism was resistant to ampicillin and only moderately susceptible to chloramphenicol. The patient responded well to cotrimoxazole to which the organism isolated was susceptible in vitro. We recommend that blood as well as faeces should be cultured in exceptionally ill patients with suspected or otherwise confirmed shigella infection.
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To document the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among the HIV infected febrile children in a malaria endemic area.