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Eighty two cultures were positive for UTI. Staphylococcus spp (46.3%) and Escherichia coli (39%) were the most common pathogens. There was high resistance to cotrimoxazole (73.2%), nalidixic acid (52.4%) and amoxicillin (51.2%). The most favorable antibiograms were obtained with gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and levofloxacin where 85.4%, 72.0%, 67.1% of isolates respectively, were either sensitive or intermediate. Only 51% of isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.
Although appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis has significantly reduced wound infection rates in clean-contaminated head and neck surgical procedures, controversy still remains regarding the optimal antibiotic regimen.
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Given the number and range of studies aimed at identifying predictors of DILI, the focus of this review is to summarize what we consider to be the most relevant new information published on the topics of clinical and genetic factors that predispose to DILI, the use of biomarkers as predictors of acute DILI, along with advances in prevention strategies.
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A 3-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanate is not as effective as ciprofloxacin for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis, even in women infected with susceptible strains. This difference may be due to the inferior ability of amoxicillin-clavulanate to eradicate vaginal E coli, facilitating early reinfection.
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The majority of patients with upper-respiratory-tract infection do not benefit from antibiotics and side-effects are frequent. However, for the subgroup whose nasopharyngeal secretions contain H influenzae, M catarrhalis, or S pneumoniae, antibiotics are clinically beneficial.
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The study enrolled 445 patients. The treatment groups were similar in terms of history of sinusitis, presenting signs and symptoms, and radiographic findings. The most common presenting symptoms were nasal congestion, sinus tenderness, and purulent nasal discharge (>90% of patients); 99% of patients had abnormal radiographic findings. At the test-of-cure visit, clinical cure rates for clinically evaluable patients in the 3 treatment groups were 74% (102/137) for 5-day gatifloxacin, 80% (101/127) for 10-day gatifloxacin, and 72% (101/ 141) for 10-day amoxicillin/clavulanate (95% CI for the difference in cure rates: 5-day gatifloxacin vs amoxicillin/clavulanate, -7.6 to 13.2; 5- vs 10-day gatifloxacin, -15.2 to 5.1; 10-day gatifloxacin vs amoxicillin/clavulanate, -2.3 to 18.1). The distribution and incidence of drug-related adverse events (AEs) were comparable between treatment groups, and the majority (>95%) were mild or moderate in severity. The most common drug-related AEs included vaginitis, diarrhea, and nausea.
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There were no differences in infection between the two groups of antibiotics. Based on the present study, short-term penicillin is still the most appropriate choice for prophylactic antibiotic in orthognathic surgery.
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Human bites to the hand or penetrating injuries contaminated with saliva can be a source of aggressive infection and debilitating injury. These types of injuries may also be a mode for the transmission of disease, notably hepatitis B. Dental personnel have an increased risk of experiencing bite injuries and should understand the general principles of appropriate management. Staphylococcal or streptococcal species are often associated with infected bite injuries, and amoxicillin and clavulanate are currently advised for prophylaxis. Wound cleansing and careful monitoring, combined with appropriate prophylaxis, are the mainstays of treatment.
We could not find any significant difference between the 3 groups regarding the evaluated parameters, but in 69.6% of the patients with dry socket, the teeth were partially erupted, which showed a significant difference.
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In patients presenting with a pelvic mass and an IUD in the uterine cavity, the diagnosis of actinomycosis should be seriously considered. A detailed workup, including a CT scan, endometrial curettage and biopsies where possible, should be performed before surgery. Once diagnosis has been confirmed, conservative medical treatment should be attempted before considering laparotomy, to reduce the risk of complications. Despite successful treatment with antibiotics, long-term sequelae such as hydronephrosis and renal atrophy are possible in cases of extended pelvic actinomycosis.