Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia (previously known as Xanthomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas maltophilia ) is an aerobic, nonfermenting, gram-negative bacillus, which has emerged as a serious nosocomial pathogen in patients with compromised immunity. It is a rare cause of endocarditis with only 20 cases previously reported in medical literature. The risk factors associated with S maltophilia endocarditis include intravenous drug abuse, dental treatment, previous cardiac surgery, and infected intravascular devices. S maltophilia is resistant to multiple antibiotics, which leads to frequent therapeutic failures. Although the optimal antibiotic treatment for S maltophilia endocarditis remains unknown, most of the patients received 2 or more antibiotics. We report a case of S maltophilia endocarditis of prosthetic aortic valve, associated with a painless aortic dissection, that responded well to a combination of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. The literature is reviewed to elaborate the disease characteristics, the treatments used, and the prognosis of the S maltophilia endocarditis.
S. Choleraesuis bacteremia was usually complicated with extraintestinal focal infections in the elderly. With a high level of resistance among S. Choleraesuis, fluoroquinolones should be avoided for critically ill patients with suspected Salmonella bacteremia.
Filamentous cyanobacteria are the main primary producers in biological desert sand crusts. The cells are exposed to extreme environmental conditions including temperature, light, and diurnal desiccation/rehydration cycles. We have studied the kinetics of activation of photosynthesis during rehydration of the cyanobacteria, primarily Microcoleus sp., within crust samples collected in the Negev desert, Israel. We also investigated their susceptibility to photoinhibition. Activation of the photosynthetic apparatus, measured by fluorescence kinetics, thermoluminescence, and low temperature fluorescence emission spectra, did not require de novo protein synthesis. Over 50% of the photosystem II (PSII) activity, assembled phycobilisomes, and photosystem I (PSI) antennae were detected within less than 5 min of rehydration. Energy transfer to PSII and PSI by the respective antennae was fully established within 10 to 20 min of rehydration. The activation of a fraction of PSII population (about 20%-30%) was light and temperature-dependent but did not require electron flow to plastoquinone [was not inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea]. The cyanobacteria within the crusts are remarkably resistant to photoinhibition even in the absence of protein synthesis. The rate of PSII repair increased with light intensity and with time of exposure. Consequently, the extent of photoinhibition in high-light-exposed crusts reached a constant, relatively low, level. This is in contrast to model organisms such as Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 where PSII activity declined continuously over the entire exposure to high illumination. Ability of the crust's organisms to rapidly activate photosynthesis upon rehydration and withstand photoinhibition under high light intensity may partly explain their ability to survive in this ecosystem.
In the present report, the effects of IFN-gamma and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) on major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) gene expression in isolated mouse brain microglial cells, in the MH-S macrophage cell line and in the primary mouse macrophage cultures were examined. IFN-gamma is a potent inducer of MHC-II gene and this induction was further elevated in microglia by TGF-beta1, while TGF-beta1 inhibited IFN-gamma, induction in macrophages. The enhancing effect of TGF-beta1 was also detected in microglia at the protein level. Transient transfection of microglia with 5' deletional mutants of the MHC-II IAalpha promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene demonstrated that TGF-beta1 acts at the transcriptional level to enhance the MHC-II expression induced by IFN-gamma.
These results establish that H. pylori Fur's distinctive N terminal arm is functional, and more generally illustrate that point mutations can confer informative phenotypes, distinct from those conferred by null mutations. We propose that fur mutations can affect Mtz susceptibility by altering the balance among Fur's several competing activities, and thereby the expression of genes that control cellular redox potential or elimination of bactericidal Mtz activation products. Further analyses of selected mutants should provide insights into Fur interactions with other cellular components, metabolic circuitry, and how H. pylori thrives in its special gastric niche.
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The discovery of toxin-antitoxin gene pairs (also called addiction modules) on extrachromosomal elements of Escherichia coli, and particularly the discovery of homologous modules on the bacterial chromosome, suggest that a potential for programmed cell death may be inherent in bacterial cultures. We have reported on the E. coli mazEF system, a regulatable addiction module located on the bacterial chromosome. MazF is a stable toxin and MazE is a labile antitoxin. Here we show that cell death mediated by the E. coli mazEF module can be triggered by several antibiotics (rifampicin, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin) that are general inhibitors of transcription and/or translation. These antibiotics inhibit the continuous expression of the labile antitoxin MazE, and as a result, the stable toxin MazF causes cell death. Our results have implications for the possible mode(s) of action of this group of antibiotics.
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Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the nose appears to play a key role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. It is important to investigate the genetic relatedness of S. aureus and MRSA clones in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, including MRSA strains in both hospitalized children and general adult population (parents/guardian). In addition, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and molecular diversity of S. aureus in both population was evaluated in an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital.