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A total of 358 recent distinct isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were recovered from clinical specimens of patients in various hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The commonest serotypes were Groups C, F, B and A. Using specific monosera for typing it was found that serotype 14 was the commonest followed by serotypes 3, 7, 1, 2, 19 and 8 respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin determined by an agar dilution method, showed that 81% were susceptible (MIC less than 0.1 mg/L), 18% were relatively resistant (MIC = 0.1-1 mg/L) and 1% showed increased resistance (MIC greater than or equal to 1.0 mg/L). The use of a 1 microgram oxacillin disc distinguished between susceptible and relatively penicillin resistant pneumococci more reliably than did the use of a penicillin disc (1 or 10 micrograms). Resistance of S. pneumoniae to tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin were 70%, 43%, 12% and 4% respectively. All isolates were susceptible to oral cephalosporins (cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefuroxime axetil) with an MIC range of less than or equal to 0.03-2 mg/L. The selection of antimicrobial therapy and the efficiency of vaccines depend on the knowledge of the local isolates of S. pneumoniae. Clinical isolates should be routinely screened to detect susceptibility to penicillin. The relatively high incidence of resistance to multiple antibiotics indicates the need to perform antibiotic susceptibility testing in order to avoid possible therapeutic failure.
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To describe the variability and appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in community-acquired acute respiratory infections (ARI) during childhood in Spain.
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Solid dispersions (SDs) between CA and PVP K30/PEG 4000 were formed by dissolving both compounds in a common solvent, methanol, which were rotary evaporated at 40°C for 12 h. Physical mixtures between CA and PVP K30/PEG 4000 were also formulated as to compare the efficiency of SDs. The physicochemical properties of CA and all its formulations were then characterized using differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction studies (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
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As an extended-spectrum fluoroquinolone, moxifloxacin offers the benefits of excellent activity against pneumococci, once daily administration and a low propensity for drug interactions. Although studies are needed regarding its tolerability in at-risk patients with QT interval prolongation, available data suggest that moxifloxacin is likely to become a first-line therapy option for the treatment of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in areas where drug-resistant S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae are common.
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In total 78 patients were enrolled, 41 in the cefuroxime axetil group and 37 in the cefaclor group. Of the 78 S. pneumoniae isolates 31 (40%) were intermediately penicillin-resistant (MIC 0.125 to 1.0 microgram/ml). Of the 47 patients with penicillin-susceptible organisms 3 (6%) had bacteriologic failure vs. 4 of 19 (21%) and 7 of 11 (64%) of those with MIC of 0.125 to 0.25 microgram/ml and 0.38 to 1.0 microgram/ml, respectively (P < 0.001). For intermediately resistant pneumococci, in 7 of 12 (58%) of those receiving cefaclor the isolate was not eradicated vs. only 4 of 19 (21%) of those receiving cefuroxime axetil (P = 0.084). MIC to the administered cephalosporin of > 0.5 microgram/ml was associated with bacteriologic failure. Clinical failure was observed in 9 of 14 (64%) patients with bacteriologic failure vs. 10 of 52 (19%) patients with bacteriologic eradication (P = 0.003).
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A total of 232 carbapenem resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii complex were collected over the six months study period; 217 (93.5%) of these were modified Hodge test positive. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and 174 (78%) susceptible to amikacin whilst 20 (9%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. For tigecycline 169 (75.8%) were fully susceptible, 37 (16.6%) intermediately resistant and only 17 (7.6%) were fully resistant. None of the carbapenem resistant isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavullanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefuroxime, cefuroxime axetil, cefoxitin, cefepime or nitrofurantoin.
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Unbound drug plasma concentration-time curves were simulated with mean population pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefuroxime axetil, spiramycin, clindamycin, azithromycin, and metronidazole. For drugs showing time-dependent antibacterial killing, the time above MIC90 of the pathogens studied was calculated (T>MIC). For drugs with concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC90 ratio was calculated.