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The pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime axetil suspension in 28 infants and children, ranging in age from 3 months to 12 years (mean, 23 months), were studied. Mean maximum serum cefuroxime concentrations of 3.3, 5.1, and 7.0 micrograms/ml were achieved 3.6, 2.7, and 3.1 h after the administration of doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg, respectively, of cefuroxime axetil suspension per kg of body weight together with milk or milk formula. These concentrations exceed the MICs for common respiratory tract pathogens, including beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Following a 10- or 15-mg/kg dose, serum cefuroxime concentrations are similar to those achieved in adults following the administration of a 250-mg cefuroxime axetil tablet. There were linear relationships between dose and both maximum serum cefuroxime concentration and area under the serum drug concentration-verus-time curve. The mean half-life of cefuroxime in serum was independent of dose and ranged from 1.4 to 1.9 h. No cefuroxime axetil (intact ester) was detected in the blood. The intact ester in the urine of four children was measured; however, the amount recovered represented less than 0.1% of the administered dose.
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To examine treatment costs of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adult outpatients given oral (p.o.) levofloxacin or cefuroxime axetil as initial therapy.
The objective of this investigation was to assess retrospectively the safety and the efficacy of oral ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime axetil compared to the combination of oral ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate, as initial outpatient treatment, in low-risk cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. We analysed retrospectively 120 episodes of febrile neutropenia, treated on an outpatient basis at 2 different oncology units; 63 episodes were treated with the oral regimen of ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate and 57 were treated with the combination of oral ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime. 20 treatment failures were recorded-2 of them among patients receiving ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate and 18 in the ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime group. Univariate analysis showed that the administration of ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime was associated with a worse outcome compared to the regimen ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin/clavulanate (OR 11, CI 2.42-49.9, p =0.002). In the multivariate model, after adjusting for the absolute number of neutrophils and the duration of neutropenia, the effect of the antibiotic regimen on the outcome disappeared, and no significant differences between the 2 regimens were noted, although the regimen of ciprofloxacin plus cefuroxime was associated with a trend to a worse outcome (OR 4.74, CI 0.72-31.1, p =0.10). In conclusion, the 2 regimens appeared equally safe and effective but prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.
The search yielded 3550 articles for diagnosis and treatment and 752 articles for prevention. Of these articles, 361 were reviewed in depth. Evidence supports the use of US Food and Drug Administration-approved serologic tests, such as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), followed by Western blot testing, to diagnose extracutaneous manifestations of Lyme disease. Microscopy and polymerase chain reaction assay of blood specimens are used to diagnose active HGA and babesiosis. The efficacy of oral doxycycline, amoxicillin, and cefuroxime axetil for treating Lyme disease has been established in multiple trials. Ceftriaxone is recommended when parenteral antibiotic therapy is recommended. Multiple trials have shown efficacy for a 10-day course of oral doxycycline for treatment of erythema migrans and for a 14-day course for treatment of early neurologic Lyme disease in ambulatory patients. Evidence indicates that a 10-day course of oral doxycycline is effective for HGA and that a 7- to 10-day course of azithromycin plus atovaquone is effective for mild babesiosis. Based on multiple case reports, a 7- to 10-day course of clindamycin plus quinine is often used to treat severe babesiosis. A recent study supports a minimum of 6 weeks of antibiotics for highly immunocompromised patients with babesiosis, with no parasites detected on blood smear for at least the final 2 weeks of treatment.
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From about one-third to two-thirds of cases of pneumonia can be attributed to a specific etiology depending on which culture, antigen detection and specialized serologic techniques, some of which are unavailable to clinicians, are used. Results of studies in which microbiologic causes have been sought confirm the importance of Streptococcus pneumoniae as the primary bacterial cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Viral etiologies become less prevalent and mycoplasmal and chlamydial infections become more prevalent with increasing age.
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Bacteriologic response to cefuroxime axetil and cefaclor administered for 10 days was evaluated in acute otitis media (AOM) in patients aged 6-36 months. Middle ear fluid culture was obtained by tympanocentesis before treatment, on day 4 or 5 after initiation of treatment, and if clinical relapse occurred before day 17. Bacteriologic failure was observed in 32% of patients receiving cefaclor versus 15% of patients receiving cefuroxime axetil (P = .009). Failure rates increased with increasing MIC: For Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.5 microg/mL (established as cutoff value for cefuroxime by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards [NCCLS]) discriminated between success and failure. For Haemophilus influenzae, high failure rates were observed for cefaclor, even with low MICs (< or = 1.0 microg/mL), and with both drugs they tended to increase with increasing MIC, even for values below the cutoff suggested by the NCCLS (8.0 and 4.0 microg/mL for cefaclor and cefuroxime, respectively). Thus, for AOM caused by H. influenzae, lower susceptibility cutoff levels for MICs should be established.
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Antimicrobial resistance among organisms that cause acute otitis media (AOM) and new approaches in the prevention and treatment of AOM are discussed. Organisms commonly responsible for causing AOM include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The evolution of pneumococcal resistance to penicillins, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and oral cephalosporins may require treatment with agents such as vancomycin or rifampin in certain patients. H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis are becoming increasingly resistant to penicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oral cephalosporins, and macrolides. Mechanisms of resistance include changes in penicillin-binding proteins, production of beta-lactamase, alterations in target enzymes, and inhibition of drug access to the site of action. Because of changing resistance patterns and the limited spectra of activity of many currently available antimicrobials, new antimicrobials have been developed in the hope of improving therapy. While amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are appropriate first-line agents, children at risk for resistant infections may be treated initially with cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefprozil, or amoxicillin-clavulanate. After local resistance patterns, patient adherence to therapy, in vitro data, and cost factors have been weighed, other agents to consider include loracarbef, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone. Along with the efforts to improve treatment, research is focusing on the prevention of otitis media with bacterial and viral vaccines. The emergence of resistant strains of organisms causing AOM has complicated its treatment.