cefobid generic name
Cefpodoxime proxetil is an orally administered prodrug which is absorbed and de-esterified by the intestinal mucosa to release the third generation cephalosporin, cefpodoxime. Cefpodoxime is stable towards the most commonly found plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases and the drug has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity encompassing both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, rendering it a possible option for empirical use in a wide range of community acquired infections in both adult and paediatric patients. The extended plasma half-life of cefpodoxime (1.9 to 3.7 h) permits twice daily administration. In comparative trials, twice daily cefpodoxime proxetil (dose equivalent cefpodoxime 100 to 400 mg) was as effective as a 3- to 4-times daily regimen of phenoxymethylpenicillin in pharyngotonsillitis, as well as thrice daily amoxicillin (with or without clavulanic acid) or cefaclor against infections of the ear, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the urinary tract and those of the skin and soft tissues. The latter reflects the enhanced antistaphylococcal activity of cefpodoxime, which distinguishes it from other orally active third generation cephalosporins such as cefixime. Most notably, an oral regimen of cefpodoxime proxetil was as efficacious as parenterally administered ceftriaxone for the treatment of bronchopneumonia in hospitalised patients at risk due to the presence of underlying diseases, addictions or advancing age. A single oral dose of cefpodoxime was also as efficacious as ceftriaxone in uncomplicated anogenital gonococcal infections. Cefpodoxime proxetil is generally well tolerated, with mild to moderate gastrointestinal disturbances occurring in 4 to 15% of patients treated with therapeutic doses. Thus, a convenient twice daily oral regimen of cefpodoxime proxetil can be prescribed as an effective alternative to established beta-lactam therapies in the empirical outpatient treatment of infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts as well as those of the skin and soft tissues.
Eighteen patients undergoing thoracotomy for suspected pulmonary neoplasia were given 200 mg cefpodoxime equivalent by mouth, before operation. Plasma samples were obtained before dose administration, and plasma and lung tissue samples were obtained at the time of operation which was 3, 6 or 12 h after the dose. All samples were assayed for cefpodoxime. The mean ratios for lung tissue/plasma concentrations were similar between 3 and 12 h after dose, suggesting that equilibrium between plasma and lung tissue concentrations was reached within 3 h of medication. The mean concentrations of cefpodoxime in lung tissue were 0.63 +/- 0.16, 0.52 +/- 0.09 and 0.19 +/- 0.02 mg/kg at 3, 6 and 12 h after administration, respectively. These observations indicate good, rapid and sustained penetration into lung tissue in concentrations greater than or equal to the MIC90 for most common micro-organisms found in community-acquired pneumonia.
cefobid renal dose
A total of 260 children, 3 months to 11 years old (median age 24 months), with acute otitis media (AOM) received either cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) 8 mg/kg/d b.i.d. or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (ACA) 40/10 mg/kg/d t.i.d. for 8 days. A significant difference in clinical cure rates was observed between the CP group 71/118 (60%) and the ACA group 42/105 (40%), p = 0.003. At the follow-up visit (20-30 days after the start of treatment), significant advantages were recorded with the CP vs. ACA therapy, in terms of satisfactory clinical response [90/111 (81%) vs 60/94 (63.8%), p = 0.005] residual middle ear effusion (14.4% vs 28.7%, p = 0.01) and normal tympanometry (78% vs 61.4%, p = 0.017). Compliance and adverse event frequency were the same in both treatment groups. The higher clinical cure rate and equivalent safety profile of CP indicates that it is an acceptable alternative to ACA for the treatment of AOM in children.
cefobid renal dose adjustment
In this study, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR) in otorhinolaryngological infections. The subjects were 205 patients (85 men and 120 women) with various otorhinolaryngological infections, aged from 16 to 81 years (mean 49.2 years): 113 patients had acute infections, 25 patients had chronic infections and 67 patients had acute exacerbation of chronic infections. 1. Clinical evaluation The overall efficacy rate was 75.6%. When classified by disease, the efficacy rate was 84.9%, 60.0%, 65.6% in acute infections, chronic infections and acute exacerbation of chronic infections, respectively. 2. Bacteriological evaluation Frequencies of isolation of different organisms were studied: 49 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 27 strains of Staphylococcus sp. and 15 strains of Streptococcus sp. were found in the decreasing order of frequencies. Antibacterial activities against S. aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and several other organisms were compared among CPDX-PR, ampicillin, cefaclor, cefteram and norfloxacin: CPDX-PR showed the highest activity. 3. Side effect Mild urticaria was observed in only 1 patient. Abnormal laboratory test results were mild elevation of GOT and GPT in 3 of 43 patients. Based on the above results, we consider that CPDX-PR is useful for treatment of otorhinolaryngological infections.
cefobid drug interaction
Cefpodoxime proxetil (RU 51807) is an enterally absorbed ester prodrug which is rapidly cleaved in vivo after oral administration, with release of the active free acid metabolite cefpodoxime. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the sodium salt of cefpodoxime (RU 51746) against approximately 800 clinical isolates was evaluated comparatively with other orally active beta-lactams. RU 51746 was found to be active against enterobacteria normally susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, with MIC50 values ranging from 0.02 mg/l (Providencia sp) to 5 mg/l (C. freundii). RU 51746 was also active against H. influenzae, including beta-lactamase producing strains (MIC50 0.04 mg/l), oxa-S S. aureus (2,5), beta-hemolytic streptococci (0.05) and S. pneumoniae (0.002). Oxa-R staphylococci and P. aeruginosa were resistant to RU 51746 (MIC50 greater than 40 mg/l for both organisms). The antibacterial activity of RU 51746 was bactericidal in nature and independent from test conditions. The molecule was stable to all the beta-lactamases studied, with the exception of cefuroximase (type Ic). RU 51746 exhibited no strong inhibitory effects on these enzymes, except with Enterobacter P99 (type Ia). A good correlation was found between in vivo activity of RU 51807 and in vitro activity of RU 51746. Cefpodoxime proxetil was found to be more effective than cefaclor in mice with experimental septicemia caused by various streptococci, with a DP50 ratio in the 10-100 range. This advantage was again evidenced for septicemias due to various enterobacteria. In contrast, cefaclor proved more effective in experimental staphylococcus infections. In mice with experimental pneumonia, cefpodoxime proxetil caused sharp falls in K. pneumoniae lung counts. Six days after induction of the infection, 60% of animals under cefpodoxime proxetil had sterile lungs, versus 25% of animals under amoxicillin.
cefobid dosage dose
Literature was identified through a MEDLINE search from 1988 to the present and from review of bibliographies in that literature.