Emerging resistance has been documented in all the bacterial STIs, but is considered rare and unconfirmed in Chlamydia trachomatis whereas is of global concern in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Azithromycin resistance has now been recognized in Mycoplasma genitalium, Treponema pallidum and N. gonorrhoeae, questioning its widespread use for chlamydial infection and threatening its future use. Rapidly increasing levels of decreased susceptibility to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae and emerging treatment failures to both cefixime and ceftriaxone, without an obvious alternative agent, are of considerable concern. Implications for treatment include choice and timing of any change in therapy, reintroduction of test of cure and definition of treatment failure in an era of molecular testing.
cefix 400 mg capsules uses
This study compared oral and rectal administration of O157-specific bacteriophages for mitigating the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 by experimentally inoculated steers. Fecal shedding of nalidixic acid-resistant (Nal(R)) E. coli O157:H7 was monitored over 83 days after oral (ORL; 3.3 x 10(11) PFU), rectal (REC; 1.5 x 10(11) PFU), both oral and rectal (O+R; 4.8 x 10(11) PFU), or no (CON; control) treatment with a four-strain O157-specific bacteriophage cocktail in multiple doses. Bacteriophages were enumerated by plaque assay, and NalR E. coli O157:H7 by direct plating on sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime, potassium tellurite, and nalidixic acid. Orally treated steers produced the fewest Nal(R) E. coli O157:H7 culture-positive samples (P < 0.06) compared with REC and O+R steers, but this number was only nominally lower (P = 0.26) than that for the CON steers. The overall mean shedding level (log CFU per gram of feces) was higher for REC steers (P < 0.10) than for steers of the other treatment groups. Despite the shedding of higher mean bacteriophage levels (log PFU per gram of feces) by ORL and O+R than by CON and REC steers, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in the number of E. coli O157-positive samples among treatments. Bacteriophage was isolated from CON steers, indicating that these steers acquired the bacteriophage from the environment and shed the phage at a level similar to that of REC steers (P = 0.39). Continuous bacteriophage therapy may be an efficacious method for mitigating shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle, providing that the host bacterium does not develop resistance. This therapy may be especially advantageous if nontreated cattle can acquire this biocontrol agent from the feedlot environment.
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It was a prospective, open, comparative, multicentric study. 776 children (Mean age 10 years) with LRTIs were included and randomly allotted to two groups respectively. A total of 396 children were given cefpodoxime susp 5 mg/kg b.i.d. and 380 patients on cefixime 4 mg/kg b.i.d. for 10-14 days.
cefix 400 mg capsules
This study was undertaken to assess the in vitro activity of several antimicrobial agents against Brazilian isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from 1996 to 2000. The antibiotics used were penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (A/C), ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefaclor, cefdinir, cefixime, cefprozil, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, doxycycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (T/S). MICs were determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and interpreted using NCCLS and PK/PD breakpoints. For S. pneumoniae 80.0% were penicillin susceptible, 18.3% intermediate, 1.7% resistant; most active agents were amoxicillin, A/C, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin; T/S was the least active agent. Beta-lactamase was produced by 13.7% of H. influenzae. All were susceptible to A/C, cefdinir, cefixime, ceftriaxone and quinolones. The least active agents were T/S and macrolides.
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The synthesis, antibacterial activity and oral absorption of novel cephalosporins (3a-3d) having a 2-propenyl group at the C-3 position are described. Diphenylmethyl 7-amino-3-(2-propenyl)-3-cephem-4-carboxylate HCl (4) prepared from 7-aminocephalosporanic acid in 12 steps was acylated with various acid moieties to give cephems 3a-3d. The cephems 3a-3c showed similar antibacterial activities as cefixime. However, these cephems were not well absorbed orally.
Culture is commonly regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have rapidly replaced culture for diagnostics in many settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the appropriate time for test-of-cure (TOC) when NAATs are used for diagnosis of gonorrhoea. In total, 30 patients (28 men and 2 women) provided urethral, cervical, rectal or pharyngeal specimens for TOC. All included patients, except one who did not return for second TOC before day 19, tested negative within 2 weeks after treatment with cefixime 400 mg × 1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 68% of the culture-positive strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Thus, the recommended empirical treatment with ciprofloxacin in Norway should be changed immediately. TOC can be performed 2 weeks after treatment when NAATs are used for diagnosis of gonorrhoea.
Randomized, double-blind clinical trial.
Chronic supportive otitis media (CSOM) is one of the commonest illnesses in ENT practice. This study was conducted to find out the various aerobic microorganisms associated with CSOM and their current antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to commonly used antimicrobials.
cefix 400 mg uses
The sample consisted of 371 streets and 329 residence FSWs. Prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and active syphilis were 5.1%, 4.6%, 1.3% in street FSWs and were 5.8%, 8.2%, and 0.6% for residence FSWs which are lower compared with the previously reported rates. The following factors were associated with having any STI: being ≤5 years in sex trade (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.9; P < 0.01), and having a cervical discharge (odds ratio, 2.6, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-4.6; P < 0.01). Resistance to cefixime and azithromycin was observed for 1 and 3 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, respectively.
cefix 100 mg syrup
In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been investigated for antibiotics susceptibility pattern. The susceptibility to Co-trimoxazol (25μg), Amikacin (30μg), Ceftriaxone (30μg), Nalidixic Acid (30μg), Cefixime (5μg), and Nitrofurantoin (300μg) tested with Disk diffusion agar and MIC determined with the E-test.