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Cefirax (Vantin)
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Cefirax

Cefirax (generic name: cefpodoxime proxetil; brand names include: Cefocep) is used for treating mild to moderate infections caused by certain bacteria. Cefirax is an oral third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is used to treat infections such as pneumonia; bronchitis; gonorrhea; and ear, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections. Cefirax works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's cell wall so that the wall ruptures, resulting in the death of the bacteria. It treats many kinds of infections, including those of the respiratory tract, skin, and ears.

Other names for this medication:
Cefobid, Cefodox, Cefoprox, Cefpodoxima, Cefpodoxime, Cepodem, Orelox, Otreon, Tambac, Vantin

Similar Products:
Duricef, Ancef, Kefazol, Keflex, Keftabs, Velocef, Intracef, Ceporin

 

Also known as:  Vantin.

Description

Cefirax is an oral, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is active against most Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Notable exceptions include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, and Bacteroides fragilis. Currently, it is only marketed as generic preparations in the USA, according to the FDA Orange Book. It is commonly used to treat acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, and gonorrhea. It also finds use as oral continuation therapy when intravenous cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) are no longer necessary for continued treatment.

Cefirax inhibits cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in cell walls. It has well established pharmacokinetic profile with absorption of 50%. It is indicated in community acquired pneumonia, uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections.

Dosage

Take this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take this medicine with a full glass of water.

The Cefirax tablet should be taken with food.

Cefirax oral suspension (liquid) can be taken with or without food.

Shake the liquid well just before you measure a dose. To be sure you get the correct dose, measure the liquid with a marked measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

This medication can cause you to have false results with certain medical tests, including urine glucose (sugar) tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using Cefirax.

Take Cefirax for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. Cefirax will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Store the tablets at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

Store Cefirax oral liquid in the refrigerator. Do not allow it to freeze. Throw away any unused medication that is older than 14 days.

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine.

Overdose symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and diarrhea.

Take the medication as soon as you remember the missed dose. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and use the medicine at your next regularly scheduled time. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Overdose

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Overdose symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and diarrhea.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. After mixing the suspension store in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F). Do not freeze. Throw away unused portion after fourteen days. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cefirax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take this medication if you are allergic to cefpodoxime, or to similar antibiotics, such as Ceftin, Cefzil, Keflex, Omnicef, and others.

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially penicillin). Also tell your doctor if you have kidney disease or a history of intestinal problems.

Take this medication for the entire length of time prescribed by your doctor. Your symptoms may get better before the infection is completely treated. Cefpodoxime will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or has blood in it, call your doctor. Do not use any medicine to stop the diarrhea unless your doctor has told you to.

cefirax dosage

The present study deals with the development of mucoadhesive controlled release tablets of Cefpodoxime Proxetil to increase the gastric residence time and thus prolong drug release, reduce dosing frequency and improve oral bioavailability. Tablets were prepared using sodium alginate and karaya gum, a natural polymer, with a synthetic polymer hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (K100LV) and Karaya gum with HPMC K100LV in various ratios to optimize the drug release profile using D-Optimal technique. Pre- and post-compression parameters of tablets prepared with various formulations (S1-S9, C1-C9) were evaluated. The FTIR and DSC studies revealed that no physiochemical interaction between excipients and drug. The formulation S7 showed prolonged drug release, and the mechanism of drug release from the optimized formulation was confirmed using the Korsmeyer-Peppas model to be non-Fickian release transport and n value was found 0.605 indicating both diffusion and erosion mechanism from these natural gums. The optimized formulation showed mucoadhesive strength >35 g. An in vivo study was performed on rabbits using an X-ray imaging technique. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets adheres (more than 10 hours) to a rabbit's stomach. No significant changes were found in the physical appearance, drug content, mucoadhesive study and in vitro dissolution pattern after storage at 40 °C/75% relative humidity for 3 months.

cefirax suspension 100 mg

Cefpodoxime, the deesterified part of the orally available cefpodoxime proxetil, is active against most Enterobacteriaceae with MIC50 of 0.06 to 2 mg/l. Only Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii strains show MIC50 of 4 mg/l. Coagulase negative staphylococci have a MIC50 of 2, while Staphylococcus aureus strains have a MIC of 4 mg/l. In comparison to other orally available cephalosporins cefpodoxime is slightly less active than cefixime and cefotiam against gram-negative bacteria but more active than cefuroxime, cefaclor, and cephalexin. Against staphylococci the activity of cefpodoxime is comparable to that of cefotiam and cefuroxime and superior to cefaclor and cephalexin, while cefixime does not have sufficient activity against these species. Like all cephalosporins cefpodoxime has no activity against enterococci.

cefirax 200 mg

The comparative pharmacokinetics of the new oral cephalosporins (ester and nonester types), together with that of the first generation carbacephem, loracarbef, are considered in healthy volunteers. Also in this review, pharmacokinetic and microbiological data are combined in order to predict the possible clinical efficacy of this group of agents. Despite apparent similarities in the structure of these agents, single dose studies have revealed marked differences in the pharmacokinetics of the oral cephalosporins. Multiple dose studies showed no evidence of accumulation with these agents. In the elderly, only minor changes in the pharmacokinetics of the oral agents were observed, and were insufficient to warrant dosage adjustment. Unlike that of the nonester compounds, the bioavailability of the ester cephalosporins is increased when they are administered after food. Variable effects are observed when the ester agents are coadministered with antacids or H2-antagonists; while the absorption of cefetamet pivoxil was unaffected by coadministered antacids or H2-antagonists, the absorption of cefpodoxime proxetil was reduced.

cefirax suspension

To discuss the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, clinical trials, adverse effects, drug interactions, and dosage guidelines of cefpodoxime proxetil.

cefirax 100 mg suspension

Cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) is a prodrug with poor oral bioavailability because of its metabolism to Cefpodoxime acid (CA) in luminal contents and intestinal epithelial cells. In the present investigation, regional variability in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract vis-à-vis solubility and metabolism were investigated, and the results indicated potential for a gastro retentive (GR) dosage form. Suitability of a GR dosage from for CP and finally in vivo efficacy were investigated. Thereafter, an effervescent floating GR dosage form was developed for CP and evaluated in rats. The GR dosage form improved the oral bioavailability of CP significantly by about 75%, hence providing a proof-of-concept. The Tmax value increased to 1.43+/-0.24 h from 0.91+/-0.23 h of pure drug, while Cmax values of 4735+/-802 ng/ml and 3094+/-567 ng/ml were obtained for the GR dosage form and pure drug respectively.

cefirax 100 mg

Cefpodoxime proxetil is a new third generation oral cephalosporin, which shows potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and high stability in the presence of beta-lactamases. Low concentrations of cefpodoxime inhibit most respiratory pathogens, including Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Cefpodoxime reaches concentrations of 0.24 +/- 0.06 mg/kg in tonsils, 0.89 +/- 0.80 mg/kg in lung parenchyma, and 0.91 +/- 0.01 mg/kg in bronchial mucosa; these values exceed by far the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cefpodoxime for respiratory pathogens. Preliminary clinical studies were carried out in 181 patients with upper respiratory tract infections: the results indicated an overall clinical response in 88.4% of patients; in 30% the clinical efficacy was excellent and in 58.5% it was good. Further studies showed clinical cure in 90.3% of patients with pharyngotonsillitis, and clinical efficacy (cure plus improvement) in 95% of those with acute sinusitis. Moreover, bacterial eradication was obtained in 78 to 96.7% of cases, most of which involved H. influenzae, streptococci, or M. catarrhalis. Cefpodoxime appears to be an effective new antibacterial that can be recommended as a drug of first choice in the treatment of most upper respiratory tract infections.

cefirax y alcohol

Electrochemical reduction behavior of cephalosporins, Cefixime (CF) and Cefpodoxime Proxetil (CP) have been studied by using different voltammetric techniques in Britton-Robinson buffer system. Two well defined cathodic waves are observed for both the compounds in the entire pH range. Number of electrons transferred in the reduction process was calculated and the reduction mechanism is proposed. The results indicate that the process of both the compounds is irreversible and diffusion-controlled. The peak currents for CF and CP are found to be linear over the range of concentration 6.0 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) and 8.8 x 10(-8) to 1.1 x 10(-5) mol l(-1), respectively. The lower detection limits are found to be 4.6 x 10(-8) and 8.52 x 10(-8) mol l(-1) for the two compounds. A differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed for the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples.

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Although fluoroquinolones remain the most reliable urinary antimicrobial, resistance rates have increased and effective fluoroquinolone-sparing antimicrobials are needed.

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Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 90% of patients with acute otitis media. This higher-than-expected rate of positive cultures was probably related to the meticulous bacteriologic techniques used.

cefirax 200 mg precio

Penicillin (PC) resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae was tested by oxacillin disk method (Bauer-Kirby method) of the strains collected at the primary pediatric office. The rate of oxacillin resistance of S. pneumoniae was 36.4% in 1990, 41.4% in 1991, and 51.9% in 1992, respectively. The efficacy of oral antibiotics in the treatment of PC-insensitive S. pneumoniae infections was also studied retrospectively in 234 cases. Treatment failure rate was 17.7% in the amoxicillin group, 8.7% in the cefpodoxime proxetil group, while it was 42.9% in the cefixime group. These differences were statistically significant. From these data prevalence of PC-insensitive S. pneumoniae is very high in Japanese children, and amoxicillin and cefpodoxime proxetil can be used for the treatment of outpatients with PC-insensitive S. pneumoniae infections.

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cefirax 100 mg suspension 2015-09-30

Three pharmacokinetic studies involving single oral doses of cefpodoxime proxetil in healthy volunteers are reported. The first study was to determine the absolute bioavailability of cefpodoxime, the second was to study the relationship between the oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil and pharmacokinetic parameters of cefpodoxime, and the third was to compare the pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime in healthy young and elderly volunteers. Half the dose of cefpodoxime orally administered as cefpodoxime proxetil in tablet form reaches the systemic circulation, while 80% of the cefpodoxime absorbed is excreted unchanged in urine. The volume of distribution is large (32.3 l). The pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime were linear in young and elderly subjects after 100 and 200 mg oral doses, which are those used therapeutically. The Cmax was about 1.4 mg/l (after 100 mg) and 2.6 mg/l (after 200 mg). Deviation Clavamox Urinary Tract Infection from linearity appeared at 400 mg and the effect was confirmed at 800 mg. The differences between young and elderly subjects were negligible, with the exception of the half-life which increased by only 14%, from 2.67 to 3 h. Dosage adjustment is therefore not necessary in the elderly.

cefirax 200 mg 2017-06-05

Fine particles of cefpodoxime proxetil (CPD) were prepared using an Aerosol Solvent Extraction System (ASES) with supercritical CO(2). The resulting primary particles were approximately 0.1-0 Elequine 500 Mg Para Sirve .2microm in size and were almost spherical in shape. The secondary particles were approximately 0.2-0.6microm in size and had irregular shapes. The larger particle size and irregular shapes were due to the agglomeration of the primary particles. The effects of solvent type, CO(2)-to-CPD solution weight ratio, and CPD solution concentration on the extent of agglomeration were investigated. As a result, the use of ethyl acetate and acetone as solvents also reduced the degree of agglomeration. The degree of agglomeration was reduced with the use of a high CO(2)-to-solution weight ratio, and a low solution concentration. In particular, spherical particles, approximately 0.1-0.4microm in size, were obtained when a 10.0wt% CPD solution was used. As a result of dissolution study, almost 90% of the processed CPD had dissolved within 10min. The recovery yield of the CPD powder reached approximately 80% using a membrane filter.

cefirax suspension 100 mg 2017-07-29

Many publications in recent years have argued in favor of shortened therapy for acute otitis media. However, doubt persists regarding Nisamox Dosage children younger than 2 years, and some authors therefore restrict short course therapy to children older than 2 years.

cefirax 100 mg 2017-03-29

Included trials were grouped by antibiotic used in the short course: (1) 15 short-acting oral antibiotic trials (penicillin V potassium, amoxicillin [-clavulanate], cefaclor, cefixime, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefprozil), (2) 4 intramuscularceftriaxone sodium trials, and (3) 11 oral azithromycin trials. The summary odds ratio for treatment outcomes at 8 to 19 days in children treated with short-acting antibiotics for 5 days vs 8 to 10 days was 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.98) but by 20 to 30 days outcomes between treatment groups were comparable (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.98 Cefpodoxime Tabs to 1.54). The risk difference (2.3%; 95% CI,-0.2% to 4.9%) at 20 to 30 days suggests that 44 children would need to be treated with the long course of short-acting antibiotics to avoid 1 treatment failure. This similarity in later outcomes was observed for up to 3 months following therapy (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.90-1.50). Comparable outcomes were shown between treatment with ceftriaxone or azithromycin, and at least 7 days of other antibiotics.

cefirax 400 mg 2015-12-28

The care strategy of pharyngitis has been changed dramatically these last years. Because of evolution of antibiotic resistance, the attitude which prevailed of the systematic treatment of pharyngitis in order to prevent a hypothetical acute rheumatic fever, could not persist. Discrimination between pharyngitis due to group A streptococcus (GAS) and nonstreptococcal pharyngitis (usually of viral causes) cannot be made in a reliable way by the clinical signs and symptoms, even if clinical scores are used. The free availability to practitioners of GAS rapid diagnostic tests, sensitive (>90%) and specific (>95%), changes the rule by simplifying it: pharyngitis with positive test must be treated with antibiotics, those with negative test should not be received such treatment. A reduction of two thirds of antibiotics consumption for pharyngitis can be expected, while maintaining the benefit (improvement of the clinical signs, reduction of contagiousness and the complications) for the patients for whom it is necessary. Because of GAS resistance to macrolides Cefpodoxime 500 Mg and the absence of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, a compound belonging of this last family should be prescribed and for a short treatment duration: amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/j, b.i.d for 6 days), cefpodoxime proxetil (8 mg/kg/j b.i.d for 5 days), cefuroxime axetil (30 mg/kg/j b.i.d for 4 days).

cefirax jarabe 100 mg 2016-05-31

This study was designed to compare cefditoren pivoxil, a new beta-lactam, with cefpodoxime Septrin Pediatrico Suspension Dosis proxetil, a beta-lactam with an established role in the treatment of CAP.

cefirax suspension 2015-06-14

The Sumamed Prospect 250 Mg effects of food intake and age on intestinal absorption of AS-924, a novel prodrug-type cephem antibiotic, were examined in 16 healthy adult volunteers (eight young volunteers and eight elderly volunteers) by the cross-over method, using cefpodoxime proxetil (CPOD-PR) as the control drug. The gastrointestinal absorption of AS-924 and CPOD-PR was increased slightly by food intake and the extent of increase was slightly greater after administration of CPOD-PR. The absorption of AS-924 was not affected by age, whereas intestinal absorption of CPOD-PR increased with age. In conclusion, these results confirmed that AS-924 has the unique characteristics as a novel prodrug and that its absorption is less likely to be affected by food intake and age.

cefirax dosage 2016-11-16

The pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime were determined after a single oral dose of 261 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil, equivalent to 200 mg of cefpodoxime, was given to each of six healthy male volunteers. Concentrations in serum, urine, and cantharidin-induced inflammatory fluid were measured by a microbiological assay. The mean peak level in plasma was 2.1 micrograms/ml, attained at a mean time of 2. Tetraciclina 250 Mg Pret 9 h. The mean half-life of elimination from serum was 2.2 h. The inflammatory exudate was penetrated moderately rapidly, the mean peak level being 1.7 micrograms/ml at 3.5 h. The mean percent penetration of the inflammatory exudate was 103.7. The mean 24-h urine recovery of cefpodoxime was 32.2%. This study suggests that cefpodoxime proxetil taken once or twice daily will be sufficient to treat urinary or systemic infections caused by susceptible pathogens.

precio cefirax 200 mg 2017-02-01

Acute otitis media (AOM) is diagnosed based on visualization of a full or bulging tympanic membrane with middle ear effusion. The distribution of bacteria causing AOM in North America under the influence of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and antibiotic selection pressure has resulted in a predominance of β-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae followed by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although guidelines continue to endorse amoxicillin as the preferred treatment, amoxicillin/clavulanate in high dosage would be the preferred treatment based on the otopathogen mix currently. Antibiotic prophylaxis has fallen into disfavor as a preventative strategy for AOM recurrences.

cefirax 200 mg precio 2017-04-08

The antibacterial activity of cefpodoxime against Branhamella catarrhalis was studied. All of the 65 clinical isolates tested were inhibited at and below 1.56 micrograms/ml, both at 10(7) and at 10(5) CFUs. The following was further studied on B. catarrhalis N-5 which showed average susceptibility to each drug examined. Bactericidal activity was observed at and above the MIC. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological changes, such as cellular swelling, bleb formation, inhibition of septum formation, and lysis, of the cells exposed to cefpodoxime at concentrations around the MIC. Cefpodoxime was poorly hydrolyzed by the beta-lactamase and it showed affinity for two penicillin-binding proteins that had approximate molecular weights of 83 and 74 kilodaltons, with I50 values of 3.7 and 2.1 micrograms/ml, respectively.