It is known that two biogenic amines:serotonin and histamine, as well as the enzymes connected with their metabolism (mono- and diamine oxidase), play very important role in human and animal fetal development. We have investigated the effect of Biseptol and sodium salicylate administered to pregnant rats on the concentrations of serotonin and histamine and activities of the above mentioned enzymes in placenta. The obtained results showed that the administration of Biseptol has no influence on the serotonin concentration, whereas the administration of sodium salicylate caused slight increase of serotonin concentration in rat placenta. The activity of monoamine oxidase was elevated after administration of both drugs (Tabl. I, Fig. 1). The administration of Biseptol decreased the histamine concentration and caused the marked increase of DAO activity. The sodium salicylate administration to the pregnant rats didn't influence on the histamine concentration, whereas it caused parallel twofold increase of DAO activity (Tabl. II, Fig. 2).
Pneumocystis remains an important cause of fatal pneumonia (PCP) in HIV patients and other immunocompromised hosts. Preclinical drug discovery for agents active against PCP has been hindered in large part by the lack of a continuous in vitro growth system. Since approval in 1978, the combination of the folic acid synthesis inhibitor combination trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been the primary agent for prophylaxis and therapy. Short term in vitro assays using cell monolayer-based and cell free systems in combination with in vivo studies in rodent models of infection have been the mainstay of candidate screening methods. These systems and their applications are reviewed here. Most strategies have focused on testing compounds already in clinical use, such as dapsone or atovaquone, for activity against Pneumocystis alone or in combination, and as parent compounds for chemical derivation, such as pentamidine and its analogues. Other successes from the bench include primaquine-clindamycin for moderate pneumonia and the family of Beta-glucan synthase inhibitors, which hold promise for clinical use against PCP. Despite the significant obstacles for drug discovery, progress in identifying novel agents has been made with current systems and the promise of future new targets is expected with the annotation of the Pneumocystis genome.
A MEDLINE search was performed using the terms aseptic meningitis, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole.
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A 45-year-old man presented with follicular exanthema in his lower limbs, alternating bowel habits and significant weight loss. His medical history included seronegative arthritis, bipolar disease and an inconclusive diagnostic laparoscopy. Diagnostic work up revealed microcytic anaemia and multivitamin deficiency. Skin biopsy of the exanthema suggested scurvy. Owing to these signs of malabsorption, upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsies was performed, exhibiting villous atrophy and extensive periodic acid-Schiff-positive material in the lamina propria, therefore diagnosing Whipple's disease (WD). After starting treatment with ceftriaxone and co-trimoxazole, an impressive recovery was noted, as the wide spectrum of malabsorption signs quickly disappeared. After a year of antibiotics, articular and cutaneous manifestations improved, allowing the patient to stop taking corticosteroids and antidepressants. This truly unusual presentation reflects the multisystemic nature of WD, often leading to misdiagnosis of other entities. Scurvy is a rare finding in developed countries, but its presence should raise suspicion for small bowel disease.
A patient is described in whom there developed a pulmonary infiltrate and constrictive pericarditis caused by a combined Actinomyces and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans infection, presumably originating from his poor dentition. The diagnosis was only made following repeated thoracotomy. After surgery, long-term treatment with antibiotics led to complete clinical recovery. None the less, some months later he was found to have a brain abscess which resolved during a further course of antibiotics. The variable clinical picture of actinomycosis is discussed, as well as the role of other bacteria frequently associated with actinomycotic infection, in particular Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. The therapeutic implications are described.
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We investigated the efficacy of prophylactic use of single dose oral ofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole regimens for transrectal prostate biopsy in 110 men. In the ofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and control groups, urinary infection was found in 2 (4.76%), 3 (6.66%) and 6 (26.08%) patients, respectively. Both of these antibiotic regimens produced a statistically significant reduction in urinary infection (p<0.02, p<0.05). Our study indicates that single dose fluoroquinolone or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis seems to be effective, practical and economical.
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Analysis of 2006 prescriptions given to 641 unselected patients by 360 doctors in the French- and Italian-speaking parts of Switzerland provides a wealth of information on prescription trends and the cost of medicine. The patients ordinarily received medication belonging to several therapeutic groups, usually 2 or 3 but up to 9 different groups. Each prescription averaged 2.08 drugs with a mean cost of 18.90 Swiss francs. The price varied considerably according to the group of drugs. Those related to the cardiovascular system were the most expensive closely followed by antibiotics, while the ophthalmological prescriptions were the least expensive. Hydergine is the most-sold drug in Switzerland, followed by Bactrim; however, if the various benzodiazepines were grouped together their sale would exceed the others. There are 62 different drugs for rheumatic conditions and 47 penicillins in Switzerland. The abundance of drugs and the prescription of medication with dubious action contribute to the inflationary cost of illness. For any given drug there is a striking parallelism between the number of pages publicizing it in 4 medical journals and total sales. This clearly demonstrates the influence of advertising on prescription trends. Doctors should be aware of this fact and rely on more objective sources of their information about drugs.
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At 4 to 11 days posttherapy, bacteriologic cure rates were 99% (112 of 113) for the ciprofloxacin regimen and 89% (90 of 101) for the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole regimen (95% confidence interval [CI] for difference, 0.04-0.16; P = .004). Clinical cure rates were 96% (109 of 113) for the ciprofloxacin regimen and 83% (92 of 111) for the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole regimen (95% CI, 0.06-0.22; P = .002). Escherichia coli, which caused more than 90% of infections, was more frequently resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (18%) than to ciprofloxacin (0%; P<.001). Among trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-treated patients, drug resistance was associated with greater bacteriologic and clinical failure rates (P<.001 for both). Drug-related adverse events occurred in 24% of 191 ciprofloxacin-treated patients and in 33% of 187 trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-treated patients, respectively (95% CI, -0.001 to 0.2).