We studied S. aureus-positive skin swabs (n = 102) from lesional skin of children, adolescents and adults with AD presenting to our inpatient and outpatient departments from January 2005 to June 2006.
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The fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, the beta-lactams penicillin G and amoxicillin, the macrolide clarithromycin, the ketolide telithromycin, as well as clindamycin, rifampicin and quinupristin/dalfopristin had MICs in the range of 0.03-0.25 mg/L. Minocycline had an MIC of 0.03 mg/L, as did penicillin, against the ST-1 strain. Ciprofloxacin had an MIC of 0.03 mg/L against both strains. Erythromycin, vancomycin and the oxazolidinone linezolid were less active (MIC 0.5-2.5 mg/L). Ceftriaxone was the least active, having an MIC of 8.0 mg/L. Chloramphenicol was inactive (MIC > 256 mg/L). Quinupristin/dalfopristin, rifampicin and moxifloxacin showed the most rapid bacterial killing, achieving a complete eradication of detectable organisms (2 log(10) reduction within 0.5-3 h and 4 log(10) reduction within 0.5-4 h for both strains at concentrations of 5x and 10x the MIC). The beta-lactams and vancomycin demonstrated a 2-4 log(10) reduction within 5-15 h. Ceftriaxone had a similar effect to penicillin and amoxicillin against the ST-1 strain, but a slower effect than these two beta-lactams against the Sterne strain. The macrolides, tetracyclines and linezolid demonstrated a lower kill rate, while chloramphenicol did not kill at all.
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An increased incidence of post-surgical infectious complications in children admitted with a diagnosis of perforated appendicitis led to development of a disease-specific antibiogram and modification of our post-operative antibiotic regimen.
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Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is a chronic inflammatory process involving both vagina and vestibule, occurring almost exclusively in white women, that responds well to topical anti-inflammatory therapy, although long-term maintenance therapy frequently is required.
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This study examined the bacteraemia following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars and evaluated the antibacterial effects of Ofloxacin, Clindamycin, Sultamicillin, used as prophylactic medications. The study involved a hundred healthy patients whose mandibular third molars were impacted horizontally. These patients were divided into four groups each including 25 individuals. One of the four groups was the control group. The other groups were those to which Ofloxacin, Clindamycin, and Sultamicillin were administered one hour before the operation and in the following 4 days postoperatively. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the operation, and then, 1 and 24 hours postoperatively. Following the incubation of the samples under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, the samples were examined microbiologically. Preoperative samples were found to be negative. In the immediate postoperative samples, bacteraemia was found in 44% of the control group, 40% of Ofloxacin and Clindamycin groups and 36% of the Sultamicillin group. In the samples taken 1 hour after the operation, bacteraemia was found in 28% of the control group, 20% of the Ofloxacin group and 24% of the Clindamycin and Sultamicillin groups. In the control group, only 2 cases showed positive culture in the blood samples taken 24 hours after the operation. In conclusion, the antibiotics, Ofloxacin, Clindamycin, Sultamicillin have a significant effect in decreasing the risk of postoperative infection and bacteraemia.
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Eikenella corrodens is a gram-negative bacillus that colonizes as normal flora of the mouth, the upper respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility patterns against fourteen antibiotics of 25 E. corrodens strains isolated at our hospital. MICs were determined by the agar dilution technique using Müeller-Hinton agar with sheep blood (5% v/v) to penicillin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, cephalotin, cefoxitin, ceftiaxone, colistin, gentamicin, amikacin, erythromycin, rifampin, ciprofloxacin and clindamycin. The most active antibiotics were ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone (MIC90 = 0.008 and 0.125 microgram/ml, respectively), whereas eritromycin, gentamicin and amikacin showed less activity. Only one strain was beta lactamase positive, and it was inhibited by sulbactam. Erithromycin, gentamicin and amikacin had poor activity (MIC90 = 16.8 and 64 micrograms/ml, respectively), whereas all the strains were uniformly resistant to clindamycin (MIC > or = 32 micrograms/ml). We suggest about the need of periodical surveys of E. corrodens susceptibility patterns, since strains have been found with decreased susceptibility against antibiotics which are currently being used for the treatment of infectious diseases.
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The pathogenesis, risk factors, microbiology, sequelae, diagnosis, and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are reviewed, and factors associated with the selection of effective, safe, and economical drug therapy are discussed. PID is an acute clinical syndrome not related to surgery or pregnancy that is caused by the spread of microorganisms from the vagina and cervix to the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and other adnexal structures. Primary PID, the most common form of the disease, is the result of the ascent of sexually acquired or endogenous lower genital tract microorganisms to the upper genital tract. Presence of a sexually transmitted disease is the most common risk factor for PID, but a previous episode of PID, multiple sexual partners, intrauterine device use, and young age are also risk factors. PID is classified as gonococcal or nongonococcal (i.e., caused by anaerobic and aerobic pelvic organisms). The long-term consequences of PID are the most devastating aspects of the disease; infertility remains the most common sequela. Therapy of PID is aimed at preserving fertility, preventing long-term consequences, and relieving acute clinical symptoms. In areas in which penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae is endemic, therapy that is effective against penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae is necessary. Gonococcal PID that is not penicillin resistant may be treated with a single intramuscular or oral dose of a penicillin; penicillin-resistant infection may be treated with a cephalosporin or ciprofloxacin. If chlamydia is a diagnostic consideration, a one- to two-week course of oral tetracycline or doxycycline (injectable-drug therapy is an alternative) should be added to the regimen. Single-agent therapy is a cost-effective alternative to combination regimens. Ampicillin-sulbactam is a cost-effective alternative to the more costly injectable cephalosporins or the combination regimens of an aminoglycoside plus clindamycin or metronidazole. With the increasing prevalence of PID in the United States, the selection of cost-effective antimicrobial therapy has important implications for the hospital pharmacist and the pharmacy and therapeutics committee.