Retrospective study including all patients with H. pylori infection and positive culture from January 1997 to December 2000. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the E test were used to report the clarithromycin (MIC > 2 mg/l) and metronidazole (MIC > 32 mg/l) resistance.
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Previous work suggests oritavancin may be inhibitory to Clostridium difficile spores. We have evaluated the effects of oritavancin exposure on C. difficile spore germination, outgrowth and recovery.
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The overuse of antibiotics and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a global concern. This concern is also of importance in terms of the oral microbiota and the use of antibiotics to deal with oral and dental infections. The aim of this paper was to review the current literature on the indications and use of antibiotics and to make recommendations for their prescription in endodontic patients. Odontogenic infections, including endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, and in most cases, the prescription of antibiotics is empirical. This has led to the increasing use of broad-spectrum antibiotics even in cases where antibiotics are not indicated, such as symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, necrotic pulps and localized acute apical abscesses. In case of discrete and localized swelling, the primary aim is to achieve drainage without additional antibiotics. Adjunctive antibiotic treatment may be necessary in the prevention of the spread of infection, in acute apical abscesses with systemic involvement and in progressive and persistent infections. Medically compromised patients are more susceptible to complication arising from odontogenic infections and antimicrobials have a more specific role in their treatment. Therefore, antibiotics should be considered in patients having systemic diseases with compromised immunity or in patients with a localized congenital or acquired altered defence capacity, such as patients with infective endocarditis, prosthetic cardiac valves or recent prosthetic joint replacement. Penicillin VK, possibly combined with metronidazole to cover anaerobic strains, is still effective in most cases. However, amoxicillin (alone or together with clavulanic acid) is recommended because of better absorption and lower risk of side effects. In case of confirmed penicillin allergy, lincosamides such as clindamycin are the drug of choice.
To investigate the price and affordability of key essential medicines for children in Sri Lanka.
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The results of treatment of pyothorax using systemic antibiotics, drainage, and lavage of the pleural space, are reported for 9 dogs. All 9 dogs recovered completely. In 8 of the 9 dogs the follow-up period was at least 6 months and in none was there a relapse. The results obtained with this treatment are excellent in comparison with the results that have been reported for treatment with systemic antibiotics and drainage of the pleural space but without lavage. Apart from the addition of pleural lavage to the treatment protocol, the better result might be because migrating plant related foreign bodies did not seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pyothorax in this group of dogs.
Secondary Helicobacter pylori resistances to metronidazole and/or clarithromycin occurred in large percentages in patients with treatment failure after the one-week proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies, proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and metronidazole and proton pump inhibitor, amoxycillin and clarithromycin. It is likely that new antibiotics or treatment strategies will be needed in the near future to successfully treat Helicobacter pylori infection.
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The incidence of C difficile infection (CDI) has risen among children; however, optimal management of CDI within a diverse pediatric population remains unclear. Although adult guidelines recommend oral vancomycin for treatment of second recurrence or severe CDI, dedicated pediatric data to support pediatric specific management guidelines are lacking. Our objective was to describe current CDI management practices by pediatric infectious diseases (ID) physicians.
With the increase in the frequency of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), there is rising concern about the decline of the eradication rate of this infection following treatment. The Tokyo Hp Study Group examined the eradication rate in response to a second-line regimen consisting of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin, and metronidazole by conducting a multicenter study in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area.
Overall eradication rates were similar for patients treated with the 4- and the 7-day periods (intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses showed a success rate of 81% versus 78% and 88% versus 85%, respectively; P = NS). Tolerance was similar in both groups. Most adverse events were mild to moderate, and only two patients were withdrawn because of them.
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Increasing antimicrobial resistance among pathogens causing complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) supports the development of new antimicrobials. Ceftolozane/tazobactam, a novel antimicrobial therapy, is active against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and most extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae.