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Balkatrin (Bactrim)

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Balkatrin (generic name: Co-trimoxazole; brand names include: Septra / Ciplin / Septrin) is a combination of two antibiotics (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections.

Other names for this medication:
Bactiver, Bactrim, Bactron, Bactropin, Baktar, Biotrim, Biseptol, Ciplin, Cotrim, Cozole, Deprim, Ditrim, Ectaprim, Eusaprim, Gantrisin, Globaxol, Kemoprim, Lagatrim, Primadex, Purbac, Resprim, Sanprima, Sepmax, Septra, Septran, Septrin, Soltrim, Sulfa, Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfametoxazol, Sulfatrim, Sumetrolim, Supreme, Sutrim, Tagremin, Trifen, Trimoks, Trimol, Trisul, Vanadyl

Similar Products:
Thiosulfil Forte, Gantanol, Azulfidine, Gantrisin


Also known as:  Bactrim.


Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim combination is used to treat infections such as urinary tract infections, middle ear infections (otitis media), bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, and shigellosis (bacillary dysentery). This medicine is also used to prevent or treat Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a very serious kind of pneumonia. This type of pneumonia occurs more commonly in patients whose immune systems are not working normally, such as cancer patients, transplant patients, and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim combination is an antibiotic. It works by eliminating the bacteria that cause many kinds of infections. This medicine will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections.

This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription.


Shake this medication well before each dose. Carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. Take this medication by mouth, as directed by your doctor, with a full glass of water (8 ounces / 240 milliliters). If stomach upset occurs, take with food or milk. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication to lower the unlikely risk of kidney stones forming, unless your doctor advises you otherwise. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.

For the best effect, take this antibiotic at evenly spaced times. To help you remember, take this medication at the same time(s) every day.

Continue to take this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping it too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a relapse of the infection.


Often, no treatment is needed for an antibiotic overdose. Usually, you'll need to watch for stomach upset and possibly diarrhea. In those cases, you should give extra fluids.


Store at room temperature between 20 to 25 degrees C (68 to 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Balkatrin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Balkatrin is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides, in patients with a history of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia with use of trimethoprim and/or sulfonamides, and in patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency.

Balkatrin is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age. Balkatrin is also contraindicated in patients with marked hepatic damage or with severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored.

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A 12 year old boy was admitted to hospital with fever, general malaise, cough and peripheral edema. The patient who have had rheumatic heart diseases-mitral insufficiency was found to be in congestive cardiac failure. In blood cultures Staphylococcus aureus and Alpha-hemolytic streptococcus grew. The regimens of Cephalothin-Gentamicin, Methicillin-Tobramicin, to which the organism were sensitive were given intravenously. On these therapy the patient continued to have fever. He was put on Trimethoprim-Sulfomethoxazole intramuscularly. He became afebril for the first time. After two weeks fever recurred. In spite of medical treatment, the infection persisted and the indication for surgery was considered. Mitral valve replacement with a Starr-Edwards prosthesis was carried out. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with TMP-SMZ. For the past 10 months the patient has remained afebril and without evidence of congestive heart failure.

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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system that causes defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, leading to impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life threatening infections; mostly by catalase producing organisms. Nocardiosis in CGD is well described, however actinomycosis is rare. We describe a patient of CGD with actinomycosis and nocardiosis coinfection. A 43-year-old male with history of recurrent discharging sinuses presented with fever, dyspnea and cough. He had multiple discharging sinuses over neck and anterior chest wall. There was only partial response to intravenous penicillin. Needle aspirate from chest wall showed co-infection with actinomyces and nocardia. His nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test was negative. He was treated with penicillin, amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and had good clinical and radiological response.

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Fifty-nine patients with active ocular toxoplasmosis were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: 29 were treated with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine, and 30 patients received trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

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For women with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI), the contribution of antibiotic use versus patient-related factors in determining the presence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal and urinary Escherichia coli, obtained from the same patient population, has not been assessed yet. Within the context of the 'Non-antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections' (NAPRUTI) study, the present study assessed determinants of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from urinary and faecal samples of women with rUTIs collected at baseline. Potential determinants of resistance were retrieved from self-administered questionnaires. From 434 asymptomatic women, 433 urinary and 424 faecal samples were obtained. E. coli was isolated from 146 (34%) urinary samples and from 336 (79%) faecal samples, and subsequently tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Multivariable analysis showed trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) use three months prior to inclusion to be associated with urine E. coli resistance to amoxicillin (OR 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-9.9), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR 4.4, 1.5-13.3), trimethoprim (OR 3.9, 1.4-10.5) and SXT (OR 3.2, 1.2-8.5), and with faecal E. coli resistance to trimethoprim (OR 2.0, 1.0-3.7). The number of UTIs in the preceding year was correlated with urine E. coli resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR 1.11, 1.01-1.22), trimethoprim (OR 1.13, 1.03-1.23) and SXT (OR 1.10, 1.01-1.19). Age was predictive for faecal E. coli resistance to amoxicillin (OR 1.02, 1.00-1.03), norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (both OR 1.03, 1.01-1.06). In conclusion, in women with rUTI different determinants were found for urinary and faecal E. coli resistance. Previous antibiotic use and UTI history were associated with urine E. coli resistance and age was a predictor of faecal E. coli resistance. These associations could best be explained by cumulative antibiotic use.

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Of 279 hospitalized HIV-infected children 128 (46%) were diagnosed with pneumonia and 26 (20%) of these had severe pneumonia. P. carinii was identified in 9 (35%) children with severe pneumonia. After June, 1996, the rate of severe pneumonia among all hospitalized children decreased from 16% from January through June, 1996, to 7% from July, 1996, through December, 1997 (P = 0.02). Cases of PCP decreased from 9 in 1996 to zero in 1997. The percentage of HIV-infected children receiving PCP prophylaxis at the time of admission increased from 53% before June, 1996, to 72% in late 1997 (P = 0.04). The overall percentage of patients with severe pneumonia receiving PCP prophylaxis at the time of admission was 34%. Breakthrough PCP occurred in 2 children with poor compliance. Patients with PCP were significantly younger than those without PCP (mean age, 10.6+/-10.6 vs. 29.8+/-28.3 months, P = 0.02).

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All identified human studies dealing with bacteriuria or UTI in pregnancy were analyzed.

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Continued bacteriologic and clinical cure, such that alternative antimicrobial drugs were not required, among evaluable patients through the 4- to 11-day posttherapy visit, compared by treatment group.

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Oral carbohydrate challenge test with 4000 kcal/d.

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Early cotrimoxazole from 6 weeks of age in HIV-infected infants seemed to reduce probability of severe events but the study lacked statistical power to prove this. Even with systematic cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, infant morbidity and mortality remained high pointing towards a need for early pediatric HIV-diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment in Africa.

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Sulfamethoxazole is the component of co-trimoxazole responsible for its efficacy against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, but this drug is associated with frequent adverse effects. Sulfamethoxypyridazine is significantly more effective than sulfamethoxazole against a murine model of P. carinii and might be a candidate for testing in infected patients.

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balkatrin drug 2015-05-02

We compared the safety and efficacies of ofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women enrolled in a multicenter study. Data from three centers were combined for this report because the study design and study populations were identical, and patients were enrolled within an 18-month period. Cure rates for evaluable patients 4 weeks after treatment were high for all regimens: ofloxacin (200 mg) twice daily for 3 days, 22 of 25 (88%) cured; ofloxacin (200 mg) twice daily for 7 days, 42 of 49 (86%) cured; ofloxacin (300 mg) twice daily for 7 days, 25 of 25 (100%) cured; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160/800 Azitromicina Cinfa 500 Mg Prospecto mg) twice daily for 7 days, 46 of 52 (88%) cured. Ofloxacin was more effective than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in eradicating Escherichia coli from rectal cultures during and 1 week after treatment. Both ofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole markedly reduced vaginal colonization with E. coli during and 4 weeks after therapy. Emergence of resistant coliforms in rectal flora was found in 5 (19%) of 27 patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but none of 50 ofloxacin-treated patients who were studied (P = 0.004). Adverse effects were equally common among the four treatment groups. We conclude that 3 to 7 days of ofloxacin is as safe and effective as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in women and that ofloxacin effectively reduces the fecal and vaginal reservoirs of coliforms in such patients.

balkatrin dosage 2016-12-11

A mouse model of cerebral nocardiosis was used to determine relative antibiotic efficacy by reducing bacterial colony counts per gram of brain tissue. The antimicrobial agents employed were demonstrated in vitro to be inhibitory to most strains of Nocardia asteroides at very low concentrations. The agents used in this study were imipenem-cilastatin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and minocycline. Antibiotics were administered every 4 h for 72 h before animal sacrifice. Bacterial colony counts were assayed Metronidazole Dogs Dose Rate at various time points before the completion of therapy. Imipenem-cilastatin and amikacin were the most effective agents tested. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was less effective than imipenem and amikacin but more effective than minocycline. Minocycline did not eradicate intracerebral organisms and was similar to saline (control) in its effects.

balkatrin tab dose 2016-10-15

Of the 48 evaluable patients, 37 (77%) tolerated sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim desensitization without toxic Augpen Ds Dose effects and continued to take sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim daily. Desensitization failed in 11 cases (5 on day 1, 3 on day 2, and 1 each on days 9, 11, and 90). Acute hypotension and a nonfatal myocardial infarction developed in 1 of these patients. The factors that were predictive of failure were a relatively high CD4+ cell percentage (11% vs 8%; P = .008) and a relatively high CD4+/CD8+ ratio (0.27 vs 0.12; P = .02).

balkatrin suspension 2015-06-26

To report our experience in diagnosis and treatment of AIDS complicated by Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), and explore the relations between preventive medication and occurrence as well as Tablet Tambac 200 Mg recurrence of PCP.

balkatrin medication 2016-07-30

After 12 months, the mean number of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (4.0 vs 1.8; P = .02), and the proportion of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (78.2% vs 71.1%). Median time to the first symptomatic UTI was 4 months for the cranberry and 8 months for the TMP-SMX group. After 1 month, in the cranberry group, 23.7% of fecal and 28.1% of Enhancin 375 Mg asymptomatic bacteriuria E coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant, whereas in the TMP-SMX group, 86.3% of fecal and 90.5% of asymptomatic bacteriuria E coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant. Similarly, we found increased resistance rates for trimethoprim, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin in these E coli isolates after 1 month in the TMP-SMX group. After discontinuation of TMP-SMX, resistance reached baseline levels after 3 months. Antibiotic resistance did not increase in the cranberry group. Cranberries and TMP-SMX were equally well tolerated.

balkatrin 400 mg 2017-11-29

After a median follow-up of 430 days, 6 (6.3%) of 96 evaluable patients receiving dapsone-pyrimethamine and 0 of 104 evaluable patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole developed P. carinii pneumonia (P < 0.0001). The cumulative rates of P. carinii pneumonia at 12 and 24 months were 0% and 0% for patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 4% and 11% for patients receiving dapsone-pyrimethamine (Mantel-Cox, P = 0.014). Can Bactrim Cure Bladder Infection However, only one episode of P. carinii pneumonia developed while patients were taking these drugs. No differences were observed for toxoplasmosis (one episode in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole arm and two in the dapsone-pyrimethamine arm), with cumulative rates at 12 and 24 months of 0% and 4% for the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole arm and 2% and 7% for the dapsone-pyrimethamine arm (P = 0.65). Similar mortality rates were observed during follow-up (P = 0.85). Nineteen patients (9.5%) discontinued therapy with the drugs because of adverse effects: Ten were in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole arm and 9 were in the dapsone-pyrimethamine arm (P = 0.95).