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Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly neglected. We argue for a much more aggressive approach to early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection in affected communities, and propose urgent assessment of frequent testing for HIV and early start of antiretroviral treatment (ART). This approach should result in short-term and long-term declines in tuberculosis incidence through individual immune reconstitution and reduced HIV transmission. Implementation of the 3Is policy (intensified tuberculosis case finding, infection control, and isoniazid preventive therapy) for prevention of HIV-associated tuberculosis, combined with earlier start of ART, will reduce the burden of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection and provide a safe clinical environment for delivery of ART. Some progress is being made in provision of HIV care to HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis, but too few receive co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and ART. We make practical recommendations about how to improve this situation. Early HIV diagnosis and treatment, the 3Is, and a comprehensive package of HIV care, in association with directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS) for tuberculosis, form the basis of prevention and control of HIV-associated tuberculosis. This call to action recommends that both HIV and tuberculosis programmes exhort implementation of strategies that are known to be effective, and test innovative strategies that could work. The continuing HIV-associated tuberculosis epidemic needs bold but responsible action, without which the future will simply mirror the past.
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Members of the Colorado chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Colorado Academy of Family Medicine were surveyed with the use of two hypothetical case management scenarios for which they were asked to indicate which International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Medicaid codes they would use. Physicians were presented with two case scenarios (one involving a persistent asymptomatic middle ear effusion and the second involving recurrent otitis media) and were asked to choose from a variety of management options, including observation, antibiotic therapy, decongestants, corticosteroids, antibiotic prophylaxis, and referral for ventilation tube surgery.
The clinical presentation, radiological and laboratory evaluation, treatment, and risk factors of sinusitis in a cohort of 376 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children from a placebo-controlled clinical trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as prophylaxis for infections were examined. Ninety-five episodes of sinusitis were described in 60 patients; one-third of the patients had two or more episodes. Sinusitis episodes were commonly associated with nonspecific, chronic symptoms (67.4%, persistent nasal discharge; 54.7%, nocturnal or persistent cough), whereas symptoms more specific to acute sinusitis were less frequent (17.9%, headache or facial pain; 9.5%, periorbital swelling; 25.3%, temperature of > or = 102 degrees F; 9%, total white blood cell count of > or = 15,000/mm3). The sinuses primarily involved were the maxillary sinus (85.9%) and the ethmoidal sinus (42.3%); 36% of episodes involved two or more sinuses. Preceding respiratory infections did not appear to increase the risk of sinusitis, and CD4+ lymphocyte counts in children with and without sinusitis did not differ. Neither monthly IVIG prophylaxis nor three times weekly trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia decreased the risk of sinusitis. Sinusitis in HIV-infected children is most often subacute and recurrent. Evaluations of new modalities for prophylaxis for sinusitis are needed.
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A 40-year-old woman with transplanted lungs developed life threatening hyperkalaemia (6.8 mmol L-1) during high dose treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Trimethoprim has an amiloride-like effect on the distal nephron and may thus induce hyperkalaemia, particularly if other contributing factors coexist. The present patient was also treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril, and the combination of ACE-inhibition and potassium-sparing diuretics is known to induce hyperkalaemia. Hyperkalaemia was probably induced by the combination of ACE-inhibitor and trimethoprim, and this combination may be as dangerous as the combination of ACE-inhibitors with other potassium-sparing diuretics.
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Opportunistic infections continue to cause a significant amount of morbidity and mortality worldwide in patients infected with HIV. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole) is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of several opportunistic infections. In patients with HIV/AIDS, cotrimoxazole use can cause a higher rate of adverse drug reactions than in the general population. Given the cost-effectiveness of cotrimoxazole, the management of these adverse reactions has included continuing the drug (treating-through) and reintroducing the drug at a later date, either using dose-escalation (desensitization), or rechallenge at full dose. This systematic review is the first to examine the differences in patient outcomes between these strategies.
The mortality rates of infants and children aged less than five years are declining globally and in Nepal but less among neonates. Most deliveries occur at home without skilled attendants, and most neonates may not receive appropriate care through the existing medical systems. So, a community-based pilot programme-Morang Innovative Neonatal Intervention (MINI) programme-was implemented in Morang district of Nepal to see the feasibility of bringing the management of sick neonates closer to home. The objective of this model was to answer the question: "Can a team of female community health volunteers and paid facility-based community health workers (collectively called CHWs) within the existing heath system correctly follow a set of guidelines to identify possible severe bacterial infection in neonates and young infants and successfully deliver their treatment?" In the MINI model, the CHWs followed an algorithm to classify sick young infants with possible severe bacterial infection (PSBI). Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVS) were trained to visit homes soon after delivery, record the birth, counsel mothers on essential newborn care, and assess the newborns for danger-signs. Infants classified as having PSBI, during this or subsequent contacts, were treated with co-trimoxazole and referred to facility-based CHWs for seven-day treatment with injection gentamicin. Additional supervisory support was provided for quality of care and intensified monitoring. Of 11,457 livebirths recorded during May 2005-April 2007, 1,526 (13.3%) episodes of PSBI were identified in young infants. Assessment of signs by the FCHVs matched that of more highly-trained facility-based CHWs in over 90% of episodes. Treatment was initiated in 90% of the PSBI episodes; 93% completed a full course of gentamicin. Case fatality in those who received treatment with gentamicin was 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-2.3] compared to 5.3% (95% CI 2.6-9.7) in episodes that did not receive any treatment. Within the existing government health infrastructure, the CHWs can assess and identify possible infections in neonates and young infants and deliver appropriate treatment with antibiotics. This will result in improvement in the likelihood of survival and address one of the main causes of neonatal mortality.
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Bacterial infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients. A number of prophylactic strategies have been used in order to reduce the risk of infection during severe granulocytopenia. The measures that have been investigated include isolation of the patient, granulocyte transfusion, active or passive immunisation, acceleration of granulocyte recovery and prophylactic use of antibacterial agents. However, many of these approaches have fallen out of favour, mostly because of concerns about the long lasting efficacy. This paper focuses on the available prophylactic strategies, with emphasis on the use of antibacterial agents.
The livestock ST398 was the most common clone among patients with S. aureus SSTIs in Jiangsu Province, China. Surveillance and further studies on the important livestock ST398 clone in human infections are necessarily requested.
Sixty-eight patients (median age: 70.5 years; 64.7% males) with S. maltophilia infection, not related to cystic fibrosis, were included. The 68 patients were hospitalized in medical (29.4%), surgical (26.5%), hematology/oncology departments (23.5%), or the intensive care units (ICU; 20.6%). The most frequent infection types were respiratory tract (54.4%), bloodstream (16.2%), skin/soft tissue (10.3%), and intra-abdominal (8.8%) infection. The S. maltophilia-associated infection was polymicrobial in 33.8% of the cases. In vitro susceptibility was higher to colistin (91.2%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and netilmicin (85.3% each), and ciprofloxacin (82.4%). The empirical and the targeted treatment regimens were microbiologically appropriate for 47.3% and 63.6% of the 55 patients with data available, respectively. Most patients received targeted therapy with a combination of agents other than trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The crude mortality and the mortality and the S. maltophilia infection-related mortality were 14.7% and 4.4%, respectively. ICU hospitalization was the only independent prognostic factor for mortality.
There were 184 patients with monomicrobial S. maltophilia bacteremia. The mean age was 68.3 years. Most patients were males (72.8%), had high Charlson Comorbidity Index scores, previously prescribed antimicrobial agents, and indwelling medical devices. The 14-day and in-hospital mortality rates were 23.9% and 47.2%, respectively. There were 128 patients (69.6%) with TSSSM and 56 (30.4%) with TSRSM. The incidence of TSSSM bacteremia increased during the study period. The TSSSM and TSRSM groups had similar demographic and clinical characteristics and no significant differences in 14-day and in-hospital mortality (24.2% vs. 23.2%, p = 0.833; 50.0% vs. 41.1%, p = 0.264, respectively). Patients with TSSSM bacteremia had an increased risk of septic shock (p = 0.044) and neutropenia (p = 0.028) at bacteremia onset. Logistic regression analysis indicated that acquisition of TMP-SXT resistance was an independent risk factor for prolonged hospitalization (p = 0.018) and catheter-related S. maltophilia bacteremia was inversely associated with prolonged hospitalization after bacteremia (p = 0.032).