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Cervical lymphadenitis and fever are common in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED). Kikuchi's disease is a rare, self-limited cause of fever and cervical lymphadenitis often misdiagnosed as lymphoma or lupus and inappropriately treated, potentially causing numerous ED visits for unrelieved symptoms. The case described is that of a 29-year-old with persistent fever and cervical lymphadenitis who presented to the ED with a suspected allergic reaction to an antibiotic. The diagnosis of Kikuchi's disease was made in association with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and partial hydatidiform mole. The case highlights the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of Kikuchi's disease.
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Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are rare; however, when they occur, they usually present with severe reactions in response to medications and other stimuli. These reactions are characterized by mucocutaneous lesions, which ultimately lead to epidermal death and sloughing. We present a unique case report of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and associated toxic epidermal necrolysis in a 61-year-old man after treatment for a peripherally inserted central catheter infection with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. This case report reviews a rare adverse reaction to a commonly prescribed antibiotic drug used in podiatric medical practice for the management of diabetic foot infections.
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Actinomycetoma is a chronic occupational condition that occurs frequently in tropical regions. In Mexico 85% of cases are caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. There are two treatments of choice for these cases: a regimen of dapsone plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) and, recently, amikacin, either alone or combined. However, not all cases respond properly to these therapies.
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Although the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) among adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has declined, no decline in PCP incidence has been observed among HIV-infected children, and PCP remains the most common serious opportunistic infection among both adults and children in the United States. Some evidence of airborne transmission of P. carinii exists, and some clusters of cases of PCP have been reported; however, data are insufficient to recommend that persons with PCP be separated from immunosuppressed persons as a standard practice. The incidence of PCP can be reduced substantially if persons at risk for PCP are identified and receive adequate chemoprophylaxis. Several drugs and drug combinations are highly effective in preventing PCP. For both adults and children, oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is the preferred form of prophylaxis. Adverse effects are commonly associated with the use of TMP-SMZ and in some cases may necessitate withdrawal of the drug until the effects resolve. However, reintroduction at the same dose or at a lower and gradually increasing dose will often permit the continued use of TMP-SMZ. For persons intolerant of TMP-SMZ, dapsone alone and dapsone plus pyrimethamine are effective alternatives. A third alternative is aerosolized pentamidine. Additional drugs of unproven efficacy but of potential use in exceptional cases are available.
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HIV-infected, ART-naive pregnant women were enrolled between gestational weeks 12 and 28 and randomly assigned to receive lopinavir/ritonavir-based or efavirenz-based ART. Women received daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis and insecticide-treated bed nets at enrollment and were followed up to 1 year after delivery. The primary outcome was placental malaria, defined by the detection of malaria parasites, using microscopy or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of placental blood specimens. Secondary outcomes included placental malaria, defined by histopathologic results; adverse birth outcomes; incidence of malaria; and prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia. Analyses were done using an intention-to-treat approach.
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Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and children worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a condition that similarly disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries; of the nearly 2.1 million children under age 15 years living with HIV/AIDS, the large majority reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Infants and children with HIV infection have more frequent and more severe diarrhoea than children without HIV. Interventions including vitamin A, zinc and cotrimoxazole may contribute substantially to preventing diarrhoea in children with HIV infection or exposure to HIV.
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The findings indicate that dosing errors were common among hospitalized patients with renal impairment. Improving the quality of drug prescription in patients with renal impairment could be of importance for improving the quality of care.
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This is the first report of keratitis caused by Nocardia exalbida. This species is susceptible to many antibiotics in vitro and clinically. However, supplementation with corticosteroids can lead to recurrence, and care should be taken when corticosteroids are being considered.