Peptide libraries displayed by T7 phage, which contain random cDNA fragments insets, were screened for their ability to bind to a biotinylated derivative of clarithromycin. Phage particles bound to an immobilized derivative of the antibiotic were isolated and the inserted cDNA was amplified and sequenced. A common selected peptide sequence, composed of 19 amino acids, was obtained and a synthetic peptide with this sequence was produced. Surface plasmon resonance experiments showed that the synthetic peptide immobilized on a sensor chip bound to clarithromycin and the dissociation constant was determined to be 2.1 x 10(-3) M. The dissociation constants of other macrolide antibiotics, erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin and josamycin were also determined to be 5.4 x 10(-3) M, 6.2 x 10(-5) M, 1.1 M and 3.4 x 10(-2) M, respectively. These results indicated that T7 phage display method might be useful to determine relatively weak interactions between small molecule drugs and the selected peptides which could represent a possible binding site conserved in binding proteins.
This randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted at 5 centers in the United States. Eligible patients were adult (age >35 years) smokers or ex-smokers (smoking history of at least 10 pack-years) with chronic bronchitis and an acute exacerbation, defined by the occurrence of increased dyspnea and/or productive cough and feverishness within 48 hours of enrollment. Before randomization, an attempt was made to obtain a sputum specimen from each patient for Gram's staining and culture. Patients were randomized to receive dirithromycin 500 mg QD for 5 days or azithromycin 500 mg QD on day 1 and 250 mg QD on days 2 to 5. Clinical efficacy was assessed separately by patients and physicians at early (days 7-10) and late (days 25-35) posttreatment visits.
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Retrospective cross-sectional case-note review for all patients diagnosed with MG at Sydney Sexual Health Centre from 2009 to 2013.
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An effective intracellular concentration of an antimicrobial agent is essential for therapy of infections caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex. We previously reported on the effect of the combination of azithromycin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against M. avium infection in macrophages. We now report that stimulation of macrophages either with recombinant human gamma interferon (IFN-gamma, 10(2) U/ml) or with recombinant human TNF-alpha (10(2) U/ml) resulted in an increase in the intracellular concentration of azithromycin by approximately 200% within 3 h, compared with the concentration in unstimulated macrophages. Infection of macrophages with M. avium complex led to a decrease in the uptake of [14C]azithromycin by infected cells, compared with that by uninfected controls. Stimulation of infected macrophages with recombinant IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha overcame the inhibitory effect associated with infection. These results suggest that the increased bactericidal activity of the TNF-alpha-azithromycin or IFN-gamma-azithromycin combination against M. avium is related to enhanced uptake of the antibiotic by the stimulated phagocyte.
From our observations of phagocytic activity and IL-12 production by peritoneal cells, these macrolide antibiotics seem to act mainly as immunosuppressive agents, although they induce peritoneal cells to increase IL-18 production and splenic cells IL-4 production.
Mutations which severely affect the function of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium (lpxA and firA mutations of lipid A synthesis and rfaE mutation of the lipopolysaccharide inner-core synthesis) were found to decrease the MICs of erythromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by factors of 32 to 512, 32 to 1,024, 64 to 512, and 16 to 64, respectively. The sensitization factors for three other hydrophobic antibiotics (rifampin, fusidic acid, and mupirocin) ranged from 16 to 300. The outer membrane permeability-increasing agents polymyxin B nonapeptide (3 micrograms/ml) and deacylpolymyxin B (1 microgram/ml) sensitized wild-type E. coli to azithromycin by factors of 10 and 30, respectively. Quantitatively very similar sensitization to the other macrolides took place. Polymyxin-resistant pmrA mutants of S. typhimurium displayed no cross-resistance to azithromycin. Proteus mirabilis mutants which were sensitized to polymyxin by a factor of > or = 300 to > or = 1,000 had a maximal two- to fourfold increase in sensitivity to azithromycin. These results indicate that azithromycin and the other new macrolides use the hydrophobic pathway across the outer membrane and that the intact outer membrane is an effective barrier against them. Furthermore, the results indicate that azithromycin, in contrast to polymyxin, does not effectively diffuse through the outer membrane by interacting electrostatically with the lipopolysaccharide.
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common disease in childhood. There is no consensus on the optimal therapeutic option for OME. Considering the known efficacy of acetylcysteine (AC) and azithromycin (AZ) in the treatment of middle ear mucosa, the aim of the study was to assess their efficacy in the management of chronic OME. The study included 90 children with OME, both ears. They are divided into three groups of 30 children. Group 1 (AC) patients were treated with acetylcysteine per os, 3 × 100 mg, for 3 weeks; group 2 (AZ) with body weight adjusted dose of azithromycin for 3 days; and group 3 (AC + AZ) with a combination of acetylcysteine and azithromycin at doses described above. Three measurements were performed. On second measurement, tympanogram improvement was recorded in 45% of 60 ears in group I, 53.3% of 60 ears in group II, and 61.7% of 60 ears in group III. The percentage of improvement was highest in group III. Although between-group differences did not reach statistical significance, the results obtained appear to be clinically relevant. In conclusion, conservative therapy for chronic OME is reasonable. Although study results don't have a strong statistical differences and may not refer clinical improvement results suggest that this combination of drugs (antibiotics, bronchosecretolytics) can be useful in the treatment of OME.
Medication interactions account for a significant proportion of overanticoagulation in warfarin users. However, little is known about the incidence or degree of interaction with commonly used oral antibiotics.
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes community-acquired respiratory tract infections, particularly in school-aged children and young adults. These infections occur both endemically and epidemically worldwide. M. pneumoniae lacks cell wall and is subsequently resistant to beta-lactams and to all antimicrobials targeting the cell wall. This mycoplasma is intrinsically susceptible to macrolides and related antibiotics, to tetracyclines and to fluoroquinolones. Macrolides and related antibiotics are the first-line treatment of M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections mainly because of their low MIC against the bacteria, their low toxicity and the absence of contraindication in young children. The newer macrolides are now the preferred agents with a 7-to-14 day course of oral clarithromycin or a 5-day course of oral azithromycin for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia due to M. pneumoniae, according to the different guidelines worldwide. However, macrolide resistance has been spreading for 15 years worldwide, with prevalence now ranging between 0 and 15% in Europe and the USA, approximately 30% in Israel and up to 90-100% in Asia. This resistance is associated with point mutations in the peptidyl-transferase loop of the 23S rRNA and leads to high-level resistance to macrolides. Macrolide resistance-associated mutations can be detected using several molecular methods applicable directly from respiratory specimens. Because this resistance has clinical outcomes such as longer duration of fever, cough and hospital stay, alternative antibiotic treatment can be required, including tetracyclines such as doxycycline and minocycline or fluoroquinolones, primarily levofloxacin, during 7-14 days, even though fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines are contraindicated in all children and in children < 8 year-old, respectively. Acquired resistance to tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones has never been reported in M. pneumoniae clinical isolates but reduced susceptibility was reported in in vitro selected mutants. This article focuses on M. pneumoniae antibiotic susceptibility and on the development and the evolution of acquired resistance. Molecular detection of resistant mutants and therapeutic options in case of macrolide resistance will also be assessed.
The purpose of the present study is to establish a new animal model of azithromycin (AZ)-induced liver injury and study the molecular pathological change during the process. First, mice were respectively injected intraperitoneally with AZ of different high doses. Our results showed that 800 mg/kg AZ injection significantly induced liver injury in the mice, which reflected an ideal process of liver injury and repair. In this study, we analyzed the molecular pathological changes during the process by hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the liver of mice at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after 800 mg/kg injection. Our results showed that the expression of heat shock protein 70, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor, caspase 3, and cytochrome P450 2E1 were significantly differently expressed during liver injury induced by 800 mg/kg AZ in mice. Our results will be conducive for further study of the pathogenesis and prevention of drug-induced liver injury.