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It was observed that Gram staining is a rapid and reliable method of pre-diagnosis for H. pylori; that histopathological examination methods are of considerable importance in diagnosis; and that the investigation of the positivity of anti-CagA(IgG) will be a guide in the identification of virulent strains in particular. In addition, it was also concluded that since serological examination does not require invasive measures, this will pose an advantage. The culture method can be applied with the aim of diagnosis in cases identified as DU using endoscopy, and that in cases resistant to treatment it can be applied for the purpose of determining antimicrobial sensitivity. E-test and disc diffusion methods exhibited a rather good correlation, for which reason the disc diffusion method can be used in the determination of antimicrobial sensitivity in H. pylori strains.
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As part of Nepal's national trachoma control programme, patients received azithromycin (53 patients) or placebo (56 patients) at surgery. Conjunctivae were graded for trachoma and swabbed to detect chlamydiae preoperatively and postoperatively up to 12 months. Logistic regression was performed for associations of treatment option with recurrence, infection, and active trachoma (by eye and by patient).
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To evaluate fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treating enteric fever in children and adults compared with other antibiotics, different fluoroquinolones, and different treatment durations of the same fluoroquinolone.
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Investigations of pharmacodynamic parameters (postantibiotic effect [PAE], sub-MIC effects [SMEs], etc.) have been progressively employed for the design of dosing schedules of antimicrobial agents. However, there are fewer in vivo than in vitro data, probably because of the simplicity of the in vitro procedures. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro PAE, SME, and previously treated (postantibiotic [PA]) SME (1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC and 1/8 MIC) of azithromycin and isepamicin against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by using centrifugation to remove the antibiotics. In addition, the in vivo PAE and SME have been studied with the thigh infection model in neutropenic mice. Finally, in vivo killing curves with two dosing schedules were determined to examine whether the PAE can cover the time that antimicrobial agents are below the MIC. The two antimicrobial agents induced moderate-to-high in vitro PAEs, SMEs, and PA SMEs against S. aureus (>8 h) and E. coli (3.38 to >7.64 h). The in vivo PAEs were also high (from 3.0 to 3.6 h), despite the fact that isepamicin had lower times above the MIC in serum. Only azithromycin showed a high in vivo SME against the two strains (1.22 and 1.75 h), which indicated that the in vivo PAEs were possibly overestimated. In the killing kinetics, no great differences (<0.5 log10) were observed between the schedule that took the PAE into account and the continuous administration of doses. These results are comparable with those of other authors and suggest that these antimicrobial agents could be administered at longer intervals without losing effectiveness.
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The current study suggest that ADRs due to antimicrobials is a significant health problem.
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Tetrazolium Microplate Assay is a rapid and highly reproducible method. However, it must be performed only in tertiary level Mycobacteriology laboratories with proper bio-safety conditions.
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Several antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis on 70S ribosomes, including the macrolide erythromycin, and the azalides azithromycin (ZITHROMAX) and CP-63,956, demonstrated antimalarial activity against two strains of Plasmodium berghei. In a four-day in vivo test, the azalides were 25-fold more potent than erythromycin against the chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei N strain, and displayed additive effects with chloroquine. This effect was not observed with the erythromycin-chloroquine combination. Against the chloroquine-resistant P. berghei MSU/RC strain, the azalides were 60-fold more potent than erythromycin. Additive effects were observed with azalide-chloroquine combinations against this strain, but these results were not significantly different from the erythromycin-chloroquine combination.
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We retrospectively evaluated the Calgary Adult CF Clinic biobank to identify adults with at least one GAS isolate. Patient demographics, medical and pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) histories were evaluated. The primary outcome was PEx occurrence at incident GAS culture. Secondary outcomes evaluated were changes in lung function and PEx frequency following GAS isolation. Isolates were assessed for extra-cellular virulence factor production capacity and ability to produce quorum sensing (AI-2). Isolates were genotyped using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
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Intrapulmonary aerosol infection of GM-CSF KO mice with M. abscessus is a useful animal model for studying pathogenesis as well as pre-clinical testing of new compounds against M. abscessus in acute or chronic phases of infection.
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Compared with placebo, AZM did not alter bacterial burden but reduced α-diversity, decreasing 11 low abundance taxa, none of which are classical pulmonary pathogens. Compared with placebo, AZM treatment led to reduced in-vivo levels of chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1 (CXCL1), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-12p40 in BAL, but increased bacterial metabolites including glycolic acid, indol-3-acetate and linoleic acid. Glycolic acid and indol-3-acetate, but not AZM, blunted ex-vivo LPS-induced alveolar macrophage generation of CXCL1, TNF-α, IL-13 and IL-12p40.