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To assess the tolerance and side effects of azithromycin eyedrops at the ocular surface after corneal refractive surgery in an experimental animal model.
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A total of 220 patients (119 women) with a mean age of 22.62 years (range, 6-74 years) were enrolled; of these 23.6% were receiving azithromycin. We prepared 1303 sputum samples for mycobacterial growth (range per patient, 4-68 samples); 65 samples from a total of 17 patients (7.72%) were positive: 17 by auramine-rhodamine staining and 48 by culture. Eighty-eight culture samples were contaminated and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was not isolated in any of the cases. The mycobacteria isolated were M avium complex (n=10), M abscessus (n=6), and M fortuitum (n=1). Two or more positive cultures were obtained in 9 patients, 5 of whom experienced clinical deterioration and were prescribed specific treatment. No significant differences in clinical variables were found between patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria and those without.
Our goals were to describe azithromycin (AZI) pharmacokinetics in maternal plasma (MP), fetal plasma (FP), and amniotic fluid (AF) following intra-amniotic infection (IAI) with Ureaplasma in pregnant rhesus monkeys and to explore concentration-response relationships.
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A computerized pharmacodynamic model simulating concentrations obtained after levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin doses was used. Resistance patterns were S12, susceptible to study drugs; S31, low-level macrolide-resistant (efflux phenotype); S11, high-level macrolide-resistant (erm genotype); S9V, low-level quinolone-resistant; and S3, high-level quinolone-resistant. Initial mixed inocula (time 0) included similar percentages of each serotype.
Eighteen renal transplant patients with cyclosporine-induced gingival hyperplasia were included in the study. All patients received azithromycin with a dose of 500 mg/d for 3 consecutive days. Changes in gingival hyperplasia were evaluated by measuring the gingival sulcus depth to the cementum-enamel junction of every tooth in each of the four quadrants on days 0, 7, 30, 90, 180. Gum biopsies were obtained on days 0 and 30; the degree of inflammation was classified as "mild," "intermediate," and "severe".
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We evaluated the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic administration before IUD insertion in reducing the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease, unscheduled visits back to the clinician, and IUD discontinuations within 3 months of insertion. We performed a metaanalysis of all known randomized controlled trials comparing an antibiotic (either oral doxycycline or azithromycin) versus a placebo or no treatment. Use of prophylaxis significantly reduced the frequency of unscheduled return visits (odds ratio 0.82; 95% CI 0.70, 0.98). The protection against pelvic inflammatory disease was smaller and not statistically significant 0.89 (95% CI 0.53, 1.51). No significant effect on premature IUD discontinuation was evident. Use of either doxycycline or azithromycin before IUD insertion offered little observable benefit in the US. Prophylaxis reduced unscheduled visits and possibly PID in developing countries, which have higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases than in the US. A more important finding in these trials is the low incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease with or without prophylactic antibiotics.
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Four patients, presenting with donovanosis, were treated with azithromycine according to 2 regimens. The first used 500 mg/d the molecule during 1 week, the second used azithromycine in single cure of 1 gram. The latter led to the complete cure of 2 patients.
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To measure the concentrations of azithromycin in the central nervous system, 20 patients with brain tumors (group I) received a single 500-mg oral dose of azithromycin either 24, 48, 72, or 96 h prior to the tumor removal operation and 10 patients with cataracts undergoing surgery (group II) and 7 patients scheduled to undergo lumbar puncture (group III) received the same dose of azithromycin 24 h prior to the operation or procedure. Serum from all patients, brain tissue from group I, aqueous humor from group II, and cerebrospinal fluid from group III were assayed for azithromycin concentration. The mean concentrations of azithromycin in brain tissue 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after administration were 2.63 +/- 2.58, 3.64 +/- 3.81, 0.74 +/- 0.37, and 0.41 micrograms/g, respectively. In contrast, the concentrations of azithromycin in cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor of the eye were very low or undetectable. Therefore, these data show that azithromycin appears to be widely distributed into brain tissue but not into cerebrospinal fluid or aqueous humor of the eye.
Ensuring adherence to treatment and retention is important in clinical trials, particularly in remote areas and minority groups. We describe a novel approach to improve adherence, retention and clinical review rates of Indigenous children.
Due to ease, number of animals, time and intrinsic mechanism, we concluded that for most formulations, 2 and 4 hr RtCK data alone should be reasonably predictive of muscle damage.