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Antibiotics are effective in eliminating B. pertussis from patients with the disease, rendering them non-infectious, but do not alter the subsequent clinical course of the illness. Effective regimens include: three days of azithromycin, seven days of clarithromycin, seven or 14 days of erythromycin estolate, and 14 days of erythromycin ethylsuccinate. Considering microbiological clearance and side effects, three days of azithromycin or seven days of clarithromycin are the best regimens. Seven days of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole also appeared to be effective for the eradication of B. pertussis from the nasopharynx and may serve as an alternative antibiotic treatment for patients who cannot tolerate a macrolide. There is insufficient evidence to determine the benefit of prophylactic treatment of pertussis contacts.
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Persistent CT and MG after treatment of NGU are common, and were associated with clinical findings and drug regimen.
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46 patients were treated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study with assessments at weeks 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10 and 22. Throughout the trial measurements were made of plaque, gingival bleeding, calculus, probing pocket depths and bleeding on probing. Microbiological sampling was carried out from a selected pocket >or=6 mm at each visit. The regime employed consisted of OHI, scaling and root planing at weeks 0, 1 and 2 with reinforcement of OHI and minimal scaling at weeks 6, 10 and 22. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either azithromycin, (A), or placebo capsules, (C), 500 mg, 1x daily for 3 days at week 2. 44 patients completed the study. Mean pocket depths were analysed using analysis of covariance in 3 groups with initial pocket depth values of 1-3 mm, 4-5 mm and >or=6 mm.
Based on health care records and trachoma rapid assessments, trachoma was suspected to be endemic in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts of Zanzibar. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in each of those districts.
Clinicians need to evaluate whether the minimal short-term benefit from longer treatment of antibiotics is worth exposing children to a longer course of antibiotics.
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Of 389 specimens reviewed, GC treatment failures occurred in 13 specimens treated with cefixime 400-mg single dose (17.8% treatment failure rate regardless of anatomical site) and in 1 oropharyngeal specimen treated with cefixime 800-mg single dose. No treatment failures occurred using either ceftriaxone monotherapy or cefixime/ceftriaxone combined with azithromycin or doxycycline.
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AzaSite(®) (azithromomycin 1.0%) ophthalmic solution was approved in 2007 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first commercially available formulation of ophthalmic azithromycin for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. AzaSite(®) utilizes a vehicle delivery system called DuraSite(®), which stabilizes and sustains the release of azithromycin to the ocular surface, leading to a longer drug residence time, less frequent dosing, and an increase in patient compliance. AzaSite(®) is a broad spectrum antibiotic, effective against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and atypical bacteria. AzaSite(®) has been studied for the treatment of ocular conditions beyond its clinical indication. A number of clinical studies have evaluated its efficacy and safety in the management of ocular conditions such as bacterial conjunctivitis and blepharitis on both the pediatric and adult populations. This article aims to evaluate the peer-reviewed published literature on the use of azithromycin 1.0% ophthalmic for current and possible future ophthalmic uses.
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Macrophages harvested from 8 transplant recipients (5 without and 3 with ongoing AZM treatment) and 7 healthy subjects, and J774 cells pre-treated with AZM, a high-molecular-weight derivative of the Fe chelator desferrioxamine or ammonium chloride were oxidatively stressed. LMP, cell death, Fe, reduced glutathione (GSH) and H-ferritin were assessed.
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Of 344 isolates of Salmonella enterica, 266 (77.3%) were S. Typhi, 77 (22.4%) were S. Paratyphi A, and one (0.3%) was S. Paratyphi B. Resistance to nalidixic acid (NA(R)) (96.7%) was most common, followed by ciprofloxacin (37.9%), and azithromycin (7.3%). Multi-drug resistance was observed only in S. Typhi (3.4%). Among NA(R) strains, 61.8% were sensitive, 11.1% were moderately sensitive, and 23.9% were resistant to ciprofloxacin (0.8%, 57.4%, and 37.9% respectively according to revised CLSI breakpoint criteria for ciprofloxacin). Resistance to third-generation cephalosporin was found in seven (2%) strains of S. enterica.
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The MICs of clarithromycin and clarithromycin plus 14-hydroxyclarithromycin for H. influenzae were 4 and 2 microg/mL, respectively. For S. aureus, the MIC of clarithromycin was 0.25 microg/mL, and the MIC of azithromycin for both organisms was 1 microg/mL. H. influenzae developed resistance to both macrolides within 12 hours when exposed to sub-MICs of clarithromycin plus 14-hydroxyclarithromycin. However, when exposed to concentrations less than or equal to the MIC of azithromycin, resistance was not conferred to clarithromycin. S. aureus, on the other hand, became resistant to azithromycin and less susceptible to clarithromycin following exposure to sub-MICs of either macrolide.